Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/115

Click to flip

115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are 6 functions of body water?
1. maintains body temperature
2. maintains cell shape
3. transports nutrients, electrolytes, and oxygen to cells
4. excretes waste products
5. lubricates joints and membranes
6. medium for food digestion
Water accounts for ____% of body weight in adults.
60
Water accounts for ___-___% of body weight in infants.
70-80%
What are the three major fluid compartments in the body?
1. Intracellular
2. Extracellular
3. Transcellular
Extracellular fluid (ECF) is further divided into what 2 compartments?
- intravascular (plasma)
- interstitial
Approximately ___ liter(s) of fluid is contained in the transcellular compartment.
1
Transcellular fluid is found in what 5 compartments of the body?
1. cerebrospinal fluid
2. GI tract
3. pleural spaces
4. synovial spaces
5. peritoneal fluid spaces
To remain properly hydrated, water intake must equal what?
water output
(def)

substances whose molecules dissociate, or split into ions, when placed in water
electrolytes
(def)

positively charged electrolytes
cation
(def)

negatively charged electrolytes
anion
(def)

measurement of the chemical combining power of an ion
milliequivalent
(def)

cations and anions balance each other when expressed in milliequivalents
electrical neutrality
(def)

each body fluid compartment has its own normal composition of electrolytes.
normal composition
What are 6 mechanisms that control fluid and electrolyte movement?
1. diffusion
2. facilitated diffusion
3. active transport
4. osmosis
5. hydrostatic pressure
6. oncotic pressure
All movement of fluids and electrolytes is done in an effort to maintain what?
homeostasis
(def)

the normal distribution of fluid in ICF and ECF
first spacing
(def)

an abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid
second spacing
(def)

fluid accumulation in a part of the body where it is not easily exchanged with ECF
third spacing
When you consider the volume and osmolality of body fluids, you should look primarily at what 2 things?
sodium and water
The ________ (total/relative) amount of water and solutes determines the ECF volume.
total
The ________ (total/relative) amount of water and solutes determines the ECF osmolality.
relative
Fluid volume excess is also known as what?
hypervolemia
(def)

water and solutes are gained together
hypervolemia (fluid volume excess)
What are 3 causes of hypervolemia?
1. excessive intake of fluids
2. abnormal retention of fluids
3. interstitial-to-plasma fluid shift
What are 4 signs/symptoms of hypervolemia?
1. HTN
2. Pulmonary Edema
3. Peripheral Edema
4. Changes in LOC
A fluid volume deficit is also known as what?
hypovolemia
(def)

water and solutes are lost together
hypovolemia (fluid volume deficit)
What are 3 causes for hypovolemia?
1. loss of normal body fluid
2. decreased intake
3. plasma-to-interstital fluid shift
What are 4 signs/symptoms of hypovolemia?
1. Oligurea
2. Orthostatic hypotension
3. decreased C.O./low BP/shock
4. dehydration
True/False:

If the osmolality of one body fluid compartment changes, water will shift until osmolality is equal.
true
What occurs to body cells when ECF osmolality increases?
cells shrink
What happens to body cells with ECF osmolality decreases?
fluid shift to cells (may cause cerebral edema)
If there is an imbalance between plasma and interstitial fluid, it is known as what?
ECF distribution imbalance
ECF distribution imbalance if often due to what 2 things?
1. change in plasma protein concentration
2. alteration in capillary permeability
The movement of fluid in/out of capillaries is determined by what 4 things?
1. capillary hydrostatic pressure
2. plasma oncotic pressure
3. interstitial hydrostatic pressure
4. interstitial oncotic pressure
Plasma to interstitial fluid shifts result in what?
edema
What body system promotes the return of fluid and protein from the interstitial spaces back to the vascular spaces?
lymphatic system
True/False:

Plasma proteins that shift into the interstitial spaces cannot be reabsorbed into the blood vessels.
true
What is the main cation of ECF?
sodium
What electrolytes primarily affects the water distribution between ECF and ICF?
sodium
What are 4 common causes of hypernatremia?
- excessive sodium intake
- inadequate water intake
- excessive water loss
- disease status (diabetes insipidus, cushing syndrome, uncontrolled DM)
What are the 4 most common causes of hyponatremia?
- excessive sodium loss (ng suction, diarrhea, vomiting, renal disease, burns, etc.)
- inadequate sodium intake (diets)
- excessive water gain (polydipsia, hypotonic solutions)
- disease status (heart faiulre, hypoaldosteronism)
Normal sodium serum osmolality is what?
135-145 mEq/L
Other than sodium, what other electrolyte makes a major contribution to ECF osmolarity?
Chloride
Chloride is required for the formation of what?
stomach acid (HCl)
Chloride plays a major role in regulating what?
pH
Chloride has a strong attraction to what 3 electrolytes?
Na+, K+, and Ca2+ (passively follows all)
Chloride's homeostasis is achieved as an effect of what?
Sodium's homeostasis
What is the normal adult range of chloride?
95-113 mEq/L
What is the most essential cation of the cells?
potassium
Altered levels of potassium can lead to what?
cardiac arrhythmias
Potassium plays a key role in what 4 body processes?
1. transmission and conduction of nerve impulses
2. maintenance of normal cardiac rhythm
3. skeletal muscle contraction
4. acid-base balace
What is the normal range for potassium?
3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Magnesium influences what 2 things?
1. muscle contractions
2. intracellular activity
What percent of magnesium is contained in bone?
50-60%
What electrolyte is a coenzyme in the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates?
magnesium
Factors that regulate calcium balance appear to influence what other electrolyte's balance?
magnesium
True/False:

Magnesium produces a sedative effect.
True
What are the normal lab values of magnesium?
1.5-2.5 mEq/L
What electrolyte blocks sodium transport and stabilizes the cell membrane?
calcium
What are 5 functions of calcium?
1. transmission of nerve impulses
2. myocardial contractions
3. blood clotting
4. formation of teeth and bone
5. muscle contractions
What is the normal adult range for calcium? what is optimal?
normal range= 8.5-10.3
optimal= 9.4
What is the primary anion in ICF?
phosphorus
Phosphorus is essential to the function of what 3 things?
- muscle
- RBCs
- nervous system
What is the normal adult range of phosphorus? what is optimal?
normal range= 2.5-4.7 mEq/dl
optimal= 3.5
What are some general, common manifestations of electrolyte imbalances? (6)
1. vital sign changes (alterations in BP, pulse, temp., respirations)
2. cardiac arrhythmias
3. GI s/s (N&V, diarrhea, slow/fast intestinal motility, cramping)
4. Alteration in muscle function (irritability, weakness, paresthesia, cramping, tetany)
5. Neurological s/s (restlessness, agitation, confusion, seizure)
6. hyperactive or flaccid reflexes
True/False:

Potassium has a wide therapeutic range
False- it has a very narrow range
When administering potassium, what should you especially be alert to?
EKG changes, cardiac arrhythmias
(def)

deposition of calcium-phosphate precipitates in tissues
hyperphosphatemia
What are 3 external indicators that may be observed in a patient experiencing hypocalcemia?
1. laryngeal stridor
2. positive Trousseau's sign
3. positive Chvostek's sign
Describe Trousseau sign and how to test for it.
- induced spasm of the muscles of the hand and forearm
- test by inflating a BP cuff to a pressure above the systolic pressure and holding in place for 3 minutes. (occludes brachial artery and induces neuromuscular irritability causes by hypocalcium)
Describe Chvostek sign and how to test for it.
- an abnormal reaction to the stimulation of the facial nerve
- tap the facial nerve at the angle of the jaw (facial muscles on the same side will contract momentarily b/c of hypocalcemia)
When assessing for F&E imbalances, what historical information should be obtained?
predisposing factors, such as disease, medications, diet, lifestyle, and activity level
When assessing for F&E imbalances, postural changes in BP and a decrease in pulse pressure indicates what?
volume deficit
When assessing for F&E imbalances, an increased BP may indicate what?
volume overload
When assessing for F&E imbalances, a distended jugular vein indicates what?
fluid overload
When assessing for F&E imbalances, increased central venous and pulmonary artery pressure indicates what?
fluid volume excess
When assessing for F&E imbalances, a weak, thready, rapid pulse may indicate what?
fluid deficit
When assessing for F&E imbalances, a bounding pulse may indicate what?
fluid overload
When assessing for F&E imbalances, an irregular pulse may indicate what?
electrolytes disturbances
When assessing for F&E imbalances, edema indicates what?
fluid excess
When assessing for F&E imbalances, a decrease in skin turgor may indicate what?
fluid deficit
An increased rate of respirations may increase what?
insensible losses
When assessing for F&E imbalances, cough, dyspnea, orthopnea, and crackles indicate what?
fluid overload
When assessing for F&E imbalances, an elevated temp may indicate what?
dehydration
As a result of dehydration, an elevated temperature will also increase what type of loss in the body?
insensible loss
In an adult, an extra heart sound (s3) may indicate what?
fluid overload
When assessing for F&E imbalances, an irregular rhythm may indicate what?
an electrolyte imbalance
Dry skin and mucous membranes may indicate what?
fluid deficit
When assessing for F&E imbalances, excessive thirst may indicate what?
volume deficit
Excessive perspiration may lead to what?
volume deficit
Excessive drainage from wounds/fistulas may lead to what?
volume deficit
Behavioral changes or a decrease in LOC may be caused by what 3 things?
1. swelling of cerebral cells
2. electrolyte imbalance
3. dehydration
When assessing for F&E imbalances, paresthesias may indicate what?
electrolyte imbalance
When assessing for F&E imbalances, muscle weakness, fatigue, or cramping may indicate what?
electrolyte imbalance
When assessing for F&E imbalances, changes in neuromuscular function is indicative of what?
electrolyte imbalance
When assessing for F&E imbalances, changes in GI function may be caused by what 2 things?
- electrolyte disturbance
- volume disturbance
What 2 primary purposes does recording I&O serve when assessing F&E?
1. diagnose imbalances
2. calculate daily fluid replacement needs
When assessing for F&E imbalances, a decrease in HCT indicates what?
dilution of blood from fluid overload
When assessing for F&E imbalances, an increased HCT indicates what?
fluid or ECF volume depletion
When assessing for F&E imbalances, an increase in hemoglobin would indicate what about the ECF?
hyperosmolarity
When assessing for F&E imbalances, a decrease in hemoglobin would indicate what about the ECF?
hypoosmolarity
When assessing for F&E imbalances, an increase in BUN would indicate what?
ECF fluid depletion
A decrease in plasma proteins results in what?
fluid shifts to the interstitial spaces
When assessing for F&E imbalances, what might an EKG be used to detect?
electrolyte imbalances
True/False:

Urine specific gravity decreases with fluid deficit.
False- it increases
True/False:

Urine osmolality is increased with a fluid deficit.
True
Acidosis or alkalosis is caused by what?
electrolyte disturbances
True/False:

The older adult has a lower risk for developing fluid/electrolyte imbalances.
False- the older adult is at a greater risk due to normal physiologic changes associated with aging
What structural changes are seen with the elderly regarding fluid and electrolytes? (4)
- decrease in renal perfusion
- decrease in glomerular filtration rate
- decrease creatinine clearance
- loss of ability to concentrate and conserve water
Elderly patients experience what hormonal changes related to fluids/electrolytes?
- decrease in renin and aldosterone
- increase in ADH and ANP
How does the loss of subcutaneous tissue (as seen in the elderly) result in fluid/electrolyte disturbances?
leads to loss of moisture and the inability to respond to heat or cold quickly
True/False:

The elderly's thirst mechanism is decreased.
true
What musculoskeletal changes do the elderly experience that leads to fluid/electrolyte problems?
- decreased mobility
- stiffness in hands