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42 Cards in this Set

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ACID
a substance containing hydrogen ions that can be liberated or released
Active transport
movement of solutes across a selectively permeable cell membrane, usually against a pressure gradient and with the expenditure of metabolic energy, from an area of higher concentration of solutes to an area of lower concentration of solutes until equilibrium is established; pumping uphill"
Alkali (base)
a substance that can accept or trap hydrogen ions
Anion
atoms that carry a negative charge
Cation
atoms that carry a positive charge
Colloid (oncotic) pressure
the pressure exerted by solutes in water; "water-pulling pressure"
Dehydration
deficiency in the amount of water in the ECF without a deficiency in electrolytes
Diffusion
movement of solutes across a selectively permeable cell membrane from an area of higher concentration of solutes to an area of lower concentration of solutes until equilibrium is established; "coasting downhill"
Electrolyte
substances capable of breaking down into electrically charged ions when dissolved in solution
Extracellular fluid
fluid outside the cells
Colloid (oncotic) pressure
the pressure exerted by solutes in water; "water-pulling pressure"
Dehydration
deficiency in the amount of water in the ECF without a deficiency in electrolytes
Diffusion
movement of solutes across a selectively permeable cell membrane from an area of higher concentration of solutes to an area of lower concentration of solutes until equilibrium is established; "coasting downhill"
Electrolyte
substances capable of breaking down into electrically charged ions when dissolved in solution
Extracellular fluid
fluid outside the cells
Extracellular fluid compartment
body fluid compartment that contains fluid outside the cells
Filtration
movement of solutes and solvent across a permeable cell membrane from an area of higher concentration of solutes to an area of lower concentration of solutes until equilibrium is established
Filtration pressure
the difference between the colloid osmotic, or oncotic, pressure and hydrostatic pressure
Fluid volume deficit
deficiency in both the amount of water and electrolytes in the ECF where water and electrolyte proportions remain near normal; commonly known as hypovolemia
Fluid volume excess
excessive retention of water and sodium in similar proportions to normal ECF; commonly known as hypervolemia
Hydrostatic pressure
the pressure exerted by water within a closed system on the wall of a container in which it is contained; "water-pushing pressure"
Hypercalcemia
calcium excess in the ECF, or serum calcium level greater than 10.5 mEg/L
Hypocalcemia
calcium deficit in the ECF, or serum calcium level less than 8.5 mEg/L
Hyperkalemia
potassium excess in the ECF, or serum potassium level greater than 5.0 mEg/L
Hypokalemia
potassium deficit in the ECF, or serum potassium level less than 3.5 mEg/L
Hypermagnesemia
magnesium excess in the ECF, or serum magnesium level greater than 3.0 mEg/L
Hypomagnesemia
magnesium deficit in the ECF, or serum magnesium level less than 1.3 mEg/L
Hyperphosphatemia
phosphate excess in the ECF, or serum phosphate level greater than 4.5 mEg/L
Hypophosphatemia
phosphate deficit in the ECF, or serum phosphate level less than 2.5 mEg/L
Hypernatremia
sodium excess in the ECF, or serum sodium level greater than 145 mEg/L
Hyponatremia
sodium deficit in the ECF, or serum sodium level less than 135 mEg/L
Intracellular fluid
fluid within the cells
Intracellular fluid compartment
body fluid compartment contains fluid within the cells
Metabolic acidosis
primary deficit of bicarbonate ions in the ECF
Metabolic alkalosis
primary excess of bicarbonate ions in the ECF
Osmolality
the concentration of solutes in body fluids
Osmosis
movement of a solvent across a selectively permeable cell membrane from an area of higher concentration of solutes to an area of lower concentration of solutes until equilibrium is established
Overhydration
an excess in the amount of water in the ECF without an excess in electrolytes
Respiratory acidosis
a primary excess of carbonic acid in the ECF
Respiratory alkalosis
primary deficit of carbonic acid in the ECF
Tonicity
may be used to refer to the osmolality of a solution
Total-body water
refers to the total amount of water in the body expressed as a percentage of body weight