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51 Cards in this Set

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What are the Normal Values for Paotassium ?
3.5 - 5.0
What are the normal values for Sodium ?
135 - 145
What are the normal values for Calcium ?
4.5 - 5.5
What are the normal values for Magnesium ?
1.5 - 2.5
What are the normal values for Chloride ?
90 - 110
What are the normal levels for Phosphate?
1.7 - 4.6
What are the normal levels for Bicarbonate ?
Arterial 22 - 26
what indicates metabolic acidosis?
HCO3 below 22
What indicates Respiratory acidodis?
HCO3 above 26
What indicates metabolic alkalosis?
HCO3 above 26
What indicates respiratory alkalosis?
HCO3 below 22
A sodium excess is known as?
Hypernatremia
A sodium deficit is known as?
Hyponatremia
Chief regulation of sodium occurs where?
Kidneys
Why can hyponatremia occur when kidneys are unable excrete enough urine?
Reduced urine excretion increases the amt.of water, which will dilute the serum sodium concentration.
GI surgey can cause what?
Hypernatremia or Hyponatrmeia
Hyponatremia
Sever vomiting can cause what?
Hypernatremia or Hyponatremia
Why?
Hypernatremia, water loss can be greater than sodium loss
What are the 5 functions of Sodium?
1-conduction of nerve impulses
2-neuromuscular irritability
3-heart contractibility
4-regulates acid/base balance
5-distribution of h2o between ECF and ICF
-Excessive use of table salt
-Continuous use of canned veggies and meats
-use of IV solutions
-severe vomiting
Can cause what?
Hypernatremia
-Low sodium diet
-vomiting
-use of diuretics
Can cause what?
Hyponatremia
What are some clinical manifestation of a patient with hyponatremia?
muscle weakness
dry mucous membrane
confusion/LOC
poor skin turgor
tachycardia
nausea
headache
What are some clinical manifestations of a patient with hypernatremia?
twitching
restlessness
tachycardia
red dry tongue
hyperreflexion
Sodium is found predominantly in what fluid?
ECF
Potassium is predominantly in what fluid?
ICF
What are the functions of Potassium?
1-contraction of skeletal/smooth muscle
2-transmission/conduction of nerve muscles
3-strengthens heart muscle contraction/conduction
If the kidneys are damaged or there is a markedly decrease in urine output what happens to potassium?
k+ concentration increases in the ECF
Name some food high in patassium
Bananas/fruit
Nuts
Meat
What hormone controls glucose levels and also causes K+ to move into the cells?
Insulin
If a patient has a K+ of 2.5 what will happen to the patients heart?
Arrythmias
When the hormone aldosterone is secreted the kidneys reabsorb _______ and excrete ______?
kidneys reabsorb Na+
and excrete K+
What two meds are given with severe hyperkalemia in order to rid the body of K+ and replentish k+ absorption in cells?
Kayexlate and insulin/dextrose
Which diuretics can cause hypokalemia?
loop diuretics(lasix)
Thiazide diuretics
Which type of diuretics can cause hyperkalemia?
Potassium sparing/Aldactone
Hypokalemia is?
Metabolic acidosis or Metabolic alkalosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Hyperkalemia is?
Metabolic acidosis or Metabolic alkalosis
Metabolic acidosis
ex:diabetic coma
Calcium is found in ECF and ICF, but mainly in?
ECF
What are 4 factors that control calcium?
1-thyroid gland - releases calcitonin to pull ca into bone
2-parathyroid gland - when ca is down it releases from bone
3-vitamin D -helps absorption
4-Phosphorus - also in bone
If you correct the potassium levels this usually corrects what other electrolytes?
calcium and magnesium
Magnesium is the 2nd most abundant electrolyte in what fluid?
ICF
What are the 4 main functions of Magnesium?
1-neuromuscular activity
2-heart contractions
3-transport Na + K across membrane
4-activates many enzymes for metabolism of carbs, proteins, vit b
hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, poor GI absorption, alcoholism, can cause what?
hypomagnesemia
Clinical manifestations of hypomagnesemia would include:
hyperactive reflexes
arrythmias
*tetany
*digitalis toxicity
nausea/vomiting, diarrhea
abdominal distension
Clinical manifestations of hypermagnesemia would include:
weakness
lethargy
weak/absent deep reflex
hypotension
flushing
slow arrythmia(Cardiac arrest)
respiratory depression
What would ask a hypermagnesemic patient to avoid?
antacids w/ magnesium
Why is it important to monitor I & O of a patient with hypermagnesemia?
may indicate renal failure, also may be hypokalemic
Phosphate is found more abundant in which fluid?
ICF
Phosphate has a relationship with what other electrolyte?
Calcium, also vit D
What are the 3 functions of phosphate
1-acid base balance
2-muscle contractions
3-nerve conduction
Hypophosphatemia is
respiratory alkalosis or respiratory acidosis
alkalosis
Alcoholism can cause what?
hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hypocalcemia
Clinical manifestations of hypophosphatemia include:
irritibility
weakness
parathesia
confusion - neuro
respiratory failure
dysrythmias - vitals
GI