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62 Cards in this Set

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capillary fluid flow is directly related to the difference in pressure between the arterial and venous end of capillaries
colloid osmotic pressure
(caused by the pumping action of the heart) pushes water, electrolytes, and nutrients through the capillary walls
arterial hydrostatic pressure
(created by plasma proteins) pulls water, electrolytes, and cell waste products into the capillary through the capillary walls
venous colloid osmotic pressure
the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
dffusion
the balance affected by the movement, replacement, and transformation, retention, and/or excretion of various materials essential to life
fluid and electrolyte
are inside the cells
intracellular fluids (ICF)
are outside the cells
extracellular fluids (ECF)
inside the blod vessels
intravascular fluids
lie between the blood vessels and the cells aka a "third space"
interstitial fluids
What % of fluids are in the intracellular component in most adults
60 %
ICF make up ___ % of body weight
40 %
ECF make up ___ % of body weight
20 %
functional unit of the kidney
nephron
The nephron filters blood plasma to remove: (3)
-the end products of metabolism,
-drugs
-any excess water or solutes, reabsorbs water and solutes as needed, maintains fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance
Nephron consists of
Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, proximal tubule, descending limb of the Loop of Henle, ascending limb of the Loop of Henle, distal tubule, collecting tubule, and surrounding peritubular capillaries
As filtrate rounds the Loop of Henle and moves into the ascending limb; water is retained as ____ and ____ is pumped out.
chloride and sodium
____ and ____ acts to influence water and electrolyte balance in the distal tuble
ADH, aldosterone
important in the regulation of fluid balance
the amount of blood and pressure of the blood entering the kidneys
blood arrives at the kiney via the _____ ______.
renal artery
When blood arrives to the renal artery it flows in to _____ which leads to and from the ____.
arterioles, glomerulus
Plasma in the glomerulus is filtered through
semi-permeable membrane
After plasma is filtered in the glomerulus it goes into the
Bowman's capsule
Where does filtrate go after leaving the Bowman's capsule?
renal tubule system
Once filtrate enters the renal tubule system it flows into the
proximal tubule
Filtrates leaves the proximal tubule and descends and ascends in the
Loop of Henle
When filtrate flows through the Loop of Henle it flows through
the distal tubule and into the collecting duct
What causes filtrate to become hypertonic in the descending loop?
water flows out and sodium flows in
What cause changes in the rate at which blood is filtered by the glomerulus and, ultimately, the rate and amount of urine formation?
changes in blood volume as blood pressure
Highly permeable to water, but not urea and sodium
descending Loop of Henle
Highly permeable to chloride and sodium, but not water
ascending Loop of Henle
osmotic concentration per Liter of solution
Osmolarity
osmotic concentration per Kg of solvent
Osmolality
dominant particle in ICF
potassium
dominant partivle in ECF
sodium
What 3 factors govern osmolarity
1. Electrolytes, especially sodium
2. Glucose and urea
3. Plasma proteins (albumin)
forces fluid out of the capillaries
hydrostatic pressure
pulls fluid back in capillaries
colloid osmotic pressure
can cross capillary membranes, but can not cross cell membranes
sodium
Occurs when sodium stays in the cell and the cell swells
hypoxia
are the main negatively charged intravascular fluid anions, balance the positive charge of sodium in osmolarity
plasma proteins (albumins)
plasma proteins (albumins) create a {colloid osmotic/hydrostatic} pressure
colloid osmotic pressure
made in hypothalamus, stored in posterior pituitary gland
ADH
stimulates the pituitary to increase or decrease the release of ADH
hypothalamus
produced by adrenal cortex
aldosterone
acts on renal distal convoluted tubule
aldosterone
acts on renal collecting tubules to regulate reabsorption or elimination of water
ADH
made in adrenal gland
Glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisol)
promote resorption of sodium, water by the kidney, and affect total blood volume
Glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisol
Glucocorticoids can cause an increase in
total blood volume
naturally occurring fatty acids which function in a variety of processes including maintenance of renal blood flow
Prostaglandins
factors that reduce renal blood flow and cause prostaglandin release are (3)
1. Vasoconstriction of the renal vessels (capillaries)
2. Decrease in total blood volume
3. Decrease in blood flow to the kidney because of heart failure
(+) Cations
Na, K, Ca, Mg
(-) Anions
Cl, bicarbonate, phosphate, sulfate, protein
ECF has large amounts of
Na, Cl, and bicarbonate
ICF has (small/large) amounts of: K, phosphate, sulfate, and protein
large
EFC has (small,large) amounts of K, phosphorous, sulfate, and protein
small
IFC has small amounts of
Na, Cl, and bicarbonate
competes with H for elimination in the kidney tubules
Potassium
What promotes K loss in urine?
increase in K levels stimulates aldosterone release from the adrenal gland
Functions in: muscle contractile ability, correct neural function, strength of bone and teeth, blood clotting
calcium
Functions in neuromuscular irritability, conduction of nerve impulses and muscle contraction, osmotic pressure of ECF, acid-base balance, water balance, and gland secretion
Sodium
functions in neuromuscular irritability, the ability of nerve and muscle cell to fire, cardiac impulse conduction and muscle cell contractility, ICF osmolarity, regulation of acid-base balance, activation of enzyme reactions, influencing kidney function
Potassium