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45 Cards in this Set

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Diffusion is the passage of solute from an area of _____ solute concentration to one of _______solute concentration.
higher
lower
Osmosis is the passage of solvent from an area of _____solute concentration to one of ______ solute concentration when separated by a semi-permeable membrane.
lesser
greater
_______ is a nondiffusible substance; a solute suspended in solution (ie plasma proteins)
Colloid
Approximately _____% of the total body weight is fluid in the non-obese adult animal.
60
Approximately _____% of the total body weight is fluid in a neonate.
80
Approximately _____% of the total body weight is fluid in obese adult animals.
50
The extracellular fluid compartment is made up of what 2 main compartments?
interstitial and intravascular
The most abundant cation in ECF is _____ and in ICF is _____.
Na
K, Mg
Initially in dehydration the main fluid loss is from the _______ fluid.
interstitial
IV fluid administration enters _______-->______-->_______
Intravascular --> Interstitial --> Intracellular
The most abundant anion in ECF is _____ and in ICF is______.
Cl, HCO2
H2PO4 & proteins
What is the effect on the cell with hypotonic fluid?
swelling of the cell
What is the effect on the cell with hypertonic fluid?
shrinkage of the cell
What is the pressure exerted by a stationary liquid?
hydrostatic pressure
If vascular colliod osmotic pressure decreases (hypoproteinenima), fluid accumulation in the interstitial tissues = ________
edema
If membrane pore size can increase with systemic inflammation and burns, allowing plasma proteins to "leak" into the intersitium, pulling water with it = _______
edema
If vascular hydrostatic pressure increases with fluid overload, fluid accumulates in the intersitial space = _______
edema
What are the 3 sources of water intake?
1-water that is drunk
2-water ingested in food
3-water resulting from metabolism of food
What are the 4 sources of water loss?
1-urine
2-feces
3-sweat
4-respiration
Fluid loss that is characterized as sensible is?
Losses easily measured
Fluid loss that is characterized as insensible is?
losses not easily measured
Fluid loss that is characterized as contemporary is?
ongoing fluid losses
Fluid therapy is used for what?
1-shock
2-dehydration
3-maintain hydration
4-replace electrolytes & nutrients
5-open line for meds
What are the 5 routes of fluid administration?
1-oral
2-SQ
3-IP (intraperitoneal)
4-IO (intraosseous)
5-IV
Dextrose solutions is used for?
insensible losses & to correct hypernatremia
When administering fluids, if the PCV drops below 20%, what should be done?
blood transfusion
The main goal of therapy in shock is to increase ________ fluid.
intravascular
Hypotonic solution is excellent for what?
long term maintenance
Isotonic solution is best used for?
shock and dehydration
Hypertonic solution is best used for?
shock
What is Pierce College's rate of administration for shock in a cat?
40-60ml/kg/hr
What is Pierce College's rate of administration for shock in a dog?
80-90ml/kg/hr
The mainstay of shock therapy fluids is?
crystalloids
During surgery the accepted surgical drip rate is?
10ml/kg/hr
In general maintenance fluid rates should be increased ____% for each _____F rise in body temperature.
10
1.8
What are some signs of overhydration that can be observed?
restlessness, vomiting, serous nasal discharge
What medical problems predispose to overhydration?
cardiac disease, Primary renal disease, lung disease, cushings disease
If fluids are no longer dripping what 5 things should be checked?
1-check catheter
2-position of patient
3-check flow clamp
4-check tubing for twisting,kink
5-check fluid level
What are some complications with IV catheters?
Infiltration (edema)
Infusion phlebitis
Air embolism
Infection at venipuncture site
0.45% NaCl and 2.5% Dextrose are both examples of what type of fluid?
Hypotonic
0.9% NaCl, Lactated Ringers and Normosol-R are all examples of what type of fluid?
Isotonic
7% NaCl is an example of what type of fluid?
Hypertonic
Dextrans, Hetastarch, Oxypolygelatin and Oxygen carrying fluid are all types of what type of fluid?
Colloids
Formula for hydration deficit is?
% hydration by body weight (kg) by 1000ml
Which type of loss is it recommemded to estimate and than double?
Contempory losses