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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How does insulin stimulate glucose uptake into cells?
By inducing translocation of GLUT-4 from intracellular storage to the plasma membrane
How does insulin affect proteins?
insulin stimulates amino acid uptake into cells, inhibits protein degradation, & promotes protein synthesis
What is sphingosine?
an amino alcohol
What are glycosaminoglycans that are part of proteoglycan?
1. chondroitin sulfate
2. Heparin
3. Dermatan sulfate
4. Heparan sulfate
What is the mechanism of action of insulin on target cells?
1. insulin binds to glycoprotein receptors
2. conformational change in the receptor
3. receptor cross-linkage
4. insulin endocytosed via clathrin-coated vesicles
5. generation of cell signaling
How does type I diabetes come to be?
autoimmune response destroys pancreatic Beta cells
What risk factors are involved with contracting type I diabetes?
1. genetics
2. exposure to cow milk
3. infections
What risk factors are involved with contracting type II diabetes?
1. obesity (apple shape)
2. genetics
3. sedentary lifestyle
4. ethnicity
5. High BP
6. High cholesterol
What are some cellular complications caused by diabetes?
1. increased mitochondrial ROS production
2. increased oxidative stress
3. increased polyol pathway
4. decreased antioxidant capacity
5. increased protein glycation
6. increased PKC activity
7. decreased receptors/glucose binding
What is the common link between diabetes & oral disease?
poorly controlled hyperglycemia results in an increased pathogenic oral flora
What oral conditions are stimulated by diabetes?
1. cavities
2. xerostomia
3. thrush
4. gingivitis
5. candida albicans