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34 Cards in this Set

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allele
An alternative form of a gene.
anaphase
The third stage of mitosis, beginning when the centromeres of duplicated chromosomes divide and sister chromotids separate from each other, and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes are located at each of the two poles of the cell.
cell cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a dividing eukaryotic cell, composed of the M, G1, S, and G2 phases.
centriole
A structure in an animal cell, composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles, which are involved in cell division.
centromere
The centralized region joining two sister chromatids.
chromatid
Either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome, which are joined at the centromere.
codominance
A phenotypic situation in which both alleles are expressed in the heterozygote.
crossing over
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I.
cyclin
A regulatory protein whose concentration fluctuates cyclically.
cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis.
diploid cell
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
gamete
A haploid egg or sperm cell; gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
genetic map
An ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic markers) along a chromosome.
genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism.
haploid cell
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a given genetic character.
homologous chromosomes
Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a given trait.
hybrid
(1) Offspring of two parents that differ in one or more inheritable characteristics. (2) Offspring of two different varieties or of two different species.
incomplete dominance
A type of inheritance in which F1 hybrids have an appearance that is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parental varieties.
independent assortment
See Mendel's second law.
interphase
The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. During interphase, cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase. Interphase accounts for 90% of the time of each cell cycle.
meiosis
A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in gametes with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
metaphase
The second stage of mitosis. During metaphase, all the cell's duplicated chromosomes are lined up at an imaginary plane equidistant between the poles of the mitotic spindle.
mitosis
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei.
phenotype
The physical and physiological traits of an organism.
polygenic inheritance
An additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic character.
prophase
The first stage of mitosis, during which duplicated chromosomes condense from chromatin, and the mitotic spindle forms and begins moving the chromosomes toward the center of the cell.
Punnett square
The checkerboard diagram used for analysis of allele segregation.
segregation
See Mendel's first law.
spindle
An assemblage of microtubules that orchestrates chromosome movement during eukaryotic cell division.
telophase
The fourth and final stage of mitosis, during which daughter nuclei form at the two poles of a cell. Telophase usually occurs together with cytokinesis.
tetrad
In genetics, a pair of homologous chromosomes that have replicated and come together in prophase I of meiosis; consists of four chromatids.