Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/73

Click to flip

73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Allograph
all the different ways there are to spell the same sound. Ex / ph/f/
Morpheme
smallest unit of meaning in a language, NEED to be able to apply this a unit that is small but still has meaning
Unites
sound syllable unit a phrase / an amount of something
what are the who kinds of morphemes
free/unbound and bound
what is a unbound morpheme
root word is a free
what is a bound morpheme
prefixes or suffixes are bound
Does language influence phonetics
yes all language and communication over lap
What does the word phoneme mean?
a special speech sound, it is a speech sound that can distinguish meaning, can distinguish morphemes
Why do we talk about pars of sounds when we talk about phonemes
/p/ /b/ are phonemes because they make a difference in the meaning of words /pat/ /bat/ that is a different word ex /m/ /n/ /moon/ /noon/
Allophone
specific sound, a specific way of making something can have several allophones of making something switching sounds without changing meaning
What are diacritic marks?
symbol that you add to an allophone in order to differentiate the exact sound u are making
When is an allophone in free variation
when it does not sound different and does not break any English rules
When is an allophone not in free variation, and what it is called?
complementary distribution /key /ski/ when u are using the same sound but that it changes, per beginning or if it has another letter, /ski/ to /key/, /p/ /t/ /k/ at the beginning
What is Minimal contrast or minimal pair?
this refers to two words that only differ by one letter
What are the two Different kinds of transcription.
impressionistic vs systematic
What is the difference between broad vs. narrow transcription
both have synonyms
Broad=
phonemic just transcribe which phoneme was heard not exactly /
Narrow=
allophonic if u use diacritic markers then you are doing the allophonic [
When we transcribe each different form of transcription you use different markers
one is / the other is]
what kind of transcription is broad
systematic
what kind of transcription is impressionistic
narrow
When would u ad diacritic marks?
when you can’t represent how they actually said it ex. I /I see the sun/ if u say s improperly then u will need a diacritic mark.
What is a salavic consonant?
(batun) it is salavic because the syllable is taking on the vowel and not acting like a consonant, no movement from one consonant to the next
What is an open syllable?
When it ends in a vowel
What is a closed syllable?
When it ends in a consonant
Speech mechanism (everything you need to make speech)
3 systems are, respiratory system, laryngeal system (larynx), supralaryngeal system or articulatory system
What are the primary functions of the respiratory system for speech
it gives s air to talk on it is the power source that we can speak with
What structures do we need to be aware of
respiratory system diaphragm, trachea (tube that leads from the lungs up to the larynx)
What percent of the time do we spend exhaling inhaling
we spend 90% of our time exhaling
When the vocal folds are open the them we use is
= abducted
What is the term we use when the vocal folds are closed
=adducted
How so you vocal folds vibrate
air pushes its way through the vocal folds very fast, the pressure forces them open and the air that goes through is what the vibration is. When the vocal folds open to let the air though when you are voicing your sounds the vocal folds are adducted/ 200 times a second if you are a woman
What do we need to know about the laryngeal system?
The larynx is made up of a bunch cartilages, thyroid cartage (largest in the larynx protects the entire front of the larynx but is open in the back) cricoid cartilage (at the bottom of the larynx very high in the back but low in the front it is a ring that goes all the way around) Arytenoids cartilage (sits like two candles a muscle attaches to both of them and they move forward at an angle and then comes together and hooks together right under the Adams apple the muscle is the vocal folds) glottis (space between the vocal folds)
Gae
speech patterns for most of the west united states this is what we are using it is used when a region does not have regional pronunciation
Physiological phonetics
How speech sounds are physically made another name is articulator phonetics
historical Phonetics
study of how speech changes over time
Acoustic phonetics
this is how you hear the sounds sound as it travels though the air
perceptual phonetics
how we (human) perceive speech sounds
experimental phonetics
this is what is done in a lab using lab equipment
Clinical phonetics
abnormality
phonology
study of how speech sounds are used in language
grapheme
the written letter
I P A
International phonetic alphabet
Dialect
slightly different usage patterns based on region / ethnicity /esl/ social class/ GAE
what are the 6 branches of phonetics
clinical phonetics / experimental phonetics/ historical phonetics/ acoustic phonetics/ physiological phonetics/ perceptual phonetics
What is the lyrnx made up of?
The larynx is made up of a bunch cartilages,
Where is the thyroid and what is it made up of?
thyroid cartage (largest in the larynx protects the entire front of the larynx but is open in the back)
What is the cricoid and where is it what is special about it’s structure?
cricoid cartilage (at the bottom of the larynx very high in the back but low in the front it is a ring that goes all the way around)
Where are the arytenoids?
Arytenoids cartilage (sits like two candles a muscle attaches to both of them and they move forward at an angle and then comes together and hooks together right under the Adams apple the muscle is the vocal folds)
Where is the glottis?
space between the vocal folds
What is the cavity sequence air goes though once it leave the lungs?
when air leaves the larynx it goes through the vocal tract it goes up into the (throat) pharyngeal cavity → out the mouth OR out the nose
What are the 3 systems of the speech mechanism?
Pharyngeal ,Mouth oral cavity Nose nasal cavity
What is an articulators?
to move together, velum, pharyngeal wall jaw tongue lips
Where what is the velum?
soft palette at the top of the mouth the roof
IF you where to say velum as an adjective what would you say?
velar
If you where to use velum as a prefix for a word what would it look like?
velo
What is the pharyngeal wall and where is it?
back of the trout- made of sphincter muscle
What does the pharyngeal wall do?
the pharyngeal wall will constrict to make a tighter connection with the velum
Where is the velopharyngeal port?
place that gets closed when u contract the velum and the pharyngeal wall
Where and what does the jaw do?
moves during the production of speech sounds When you lower the jaw it often lowers the tongue and the lower teeth at the same time
Name the different parts of the tongue?
Root, body, tip, blade, dorsum
When is the tongue used?
use the tongue to make almost every sound,
Where is the Root of the tongue
that attaches it to the mouth near the back of the throat
Where is the Body of the tongue?
bulk or mass of the tongue attached to the mouth
What and where are the 3 surface areas of the tongue in order from front to back?
tip (apex), blade (directly behind the tip) dorsum most back part of the tongue
If we want to use tongue as an adjective what is the word we use?
Lingual
If we are using lingual as a prefix for a word what do we say?
lingua
If we want to say lips as an adjective what do we say?
labial
If we want to use labial as a prefix what word do we say?
labio
Name the monophthongs?
one vowel one syllable
Name and define the diphthongs?
two vowels as one syllable
what happens if something is abducted?
Open or apart
What happens if something is adducted?
pull something together