Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/134

Click to flip

134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Musca domestica
House fly
commonly found around livestock and poultry
House fly
breeds in accumulating manure sources
House fly
It is grayish with 4 dark thoracic stripes, equipped with sponging, nonbiting mouthparts
House fly
Life cycle
can be completed in as few as 10-14 days
House fly
Even though they do not feed on blood, annoyance is caused by their movement on and off animals. This can lead to reduced performance
House fly
They have been implicated in the transmission of numerous pathogenic agents of veterinary importance.
They are a public annoyance
House fly
Other species of filth-breeding flies that may occur around livestock:
1. Little house flies
2. Dump or garbage flies
3. False stable flies
4. Black soldier flies
5. Blow flies
6. Moth flies
Little house flies
Fannia sp.
Dump or garbage flies
Ophyra sp.
False stable flies
Muscina sp.
Black soldier flies
Hermetia illucens
Blow flies
Calliphoridae sp.
Moth flies
Psychodidae sp.
necessary to control fly-populations in and around livestock and poultry.
A thorough sanitation program
supplementary to sanitation and management measures aimed at preventing fly breeding.
Insecticides
provide up to 2-4 weeks of control with one treatment may be applied to fly-resting surfaces.
Residual sprays
immediate reduction of high numbers of adult flies
Space sprays, mists, or fogs with quick “knockout” but no residual action
Other controls for adult flies
insecticide resin strips or various fly baits.
applied directly to fly-breeding sources
Larvicides
Several species of blowflies cause myiasis in sheep
Black blowflies
Green bottle fly
Black blowflies
Phormia regina and Protophormia terraenovae
Green bottle fly
Lucilia sericata, Lucilia illustris, Cochliomyia (Callitroga), macellaria (secondary screwworm) and some others are usually secondary invaders.
A common site of Blowfly strike
the breech, where flies are attracted to wool soaked with urine or contaminated with feces. The body of the sheep also may be struck. This is usually associated with soaking rains that cause development of fleece-rot, often characterized by discoloration due to Pseudomonas sp. Or dermatophilosis.

Other sites are heads of horned rams, wool around the prepuce, sides where feet with foot rot come in contact with the fleece, and wounds.
Eggs, are laid below the tip of the fleece, hatch within 24 hours if conditions are moist.
Blowfly Strike
Moisture and nutrients from serum, feces, ect, are necessary for survival of the first-stage maggot.
Blowfly Strike
Second-stage larva can abrade the skin with its mouth hooks to obtain food.
Blowfly Strike
Once established, strikes can spread rapidly and attract more blowflies, secondary as well as primary.
Blowfly Strike
Bad strikes can be fatal, but even mild strikes can cause rapid loss of condition.
Blowfly Strike
should be diagnosed early, behavior of the sheep is a good indicator of myiasis.
Blowfly Strike
may be suspected if the larvae are associated with wounds.
Screwworm (Blowfly Strike)
Blowfly Strike can be effectively controlled for 6-8 weeks by
“tagging” or “Crutching” (wool is shorn between the legs and around the tail).
controls outbreaks involving other parts of the body.
Complete shearing
most efficient procedure (Blowfly Strike)
to force insecticide into the fleece under high pressure (jetting) protection can last 6-8 weeks
There are about ______ species of mosquitoes
3000
the most prominent of the numerous kinds of bloodsucking arthropods
Mosquitoes
can be found in salt marshes, snow pools above 14,000 ft and to 3600 ft below sea level in the gold mines of India.
Mosquitoes
subject to attack of mosquitoes
All classes of livestock, dogs, wildlife, and man
Important genera of mosquitoes include
Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, and Psorophora.
lay their eggs either directly on the surface of standing water or, in the case of most Aedes and Psorophora sp, on a substrate such as damp soil where they hatch following flooding.
Mosquitoes
also known as “wigglers” and “tumblers” are aquatic.
mosquito Larvae and pupae
Some species have several generations per year
mosquitoes
egg stage in the winter
Aedes and Psorophora sp. (mosquitoes)
adult stage in the winter
Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta sp (mosquitoes)
Injuries that mosquitoes inflict on livestock consist mainly of
annoyance, blood loss, and transmission of several diseases
mosquito transmitted diseases
Equine encephalomyelitis
Malaria
Yellow Fever
Elephantiasis
Heartworms
treatment and control of mosquitoes
Eliminate or reduce areas of land that harbor mosquito larvae
Larvicides
Insecticides that are active against adults
Ox Warbles or Cattle Grubs
Hypoderma species
two larval species of Hypoderma flies
Ox Warbles or Cattle Grubs
heavy and resemble honey bees, the are often called
Adult flies / heel flies
entire life cycle is almost a year
Ox Warbles or Cattle Grubs
bothersome to cattle as they approach to lay their eggs
Adult flies
Gadding
Cattle can become apprehensive and disturbed and attempt to escape by running away
Eggs are about 1mm long and are attached to hairs on the legs of cattle
Ox Warbles or Cattle Grubs
hatch in about r days and crawl down the hair shaft to the skin which they penetrate
Ox Warbles or Cattle Grubs
larvae
Cattle Grub Larvae
wander through the subcutaneous connective tissues in the leg and migrate through the esophagus or the region of the spinal canal and epidural fat until they reach the subcutaneous tissues of the back.
Here they create breathing holes in the skin of the dorsum; it is through these pores that they later exit and fall to the ground to pupate
Beelike and are covered with yellow to orange hairs
Cattle Grub adults
Cream to dark brown and covered with small spines
Cattle Grub Larvae
Consist of large cyst like swellings on the back, with central breathing pore
Cattle Grub Lesions
Larvae of the genus Cuterebra (wolf Warble) infest the skin of
1. rabbits
2. squirrel
3. mice
4. rats,
5. chipmunks
6. dogs
7. cats
larva stage of most Cuterebra when recovered in a veterinary setting
second or third stage larvae
5-10 mm long, and cream to grayish white. They are often covered with tiny, black, tooth like spines.
Cuterebra second stage larvae
large, robust, coal-black, and heavily spined
Cuterebra third stage larvae
found in swollen, cyst like subcutaneous sites, with a fistula or pore communicating to the outside environment, which it breaths through.
Cuterebra Larval stages
Adult flies lay eggs near the entrance to rodent burrows.
Cuterebra
Pets usually contract this parasite while investigating or hunting rodent prey. As a result, the most commonly affected sites in dogs and cats are the subcutaneous tissues of the neck and face.
Cuterebra
Usually occur during the late summer and early fall
Cuterebra
The most commonly affected sites in dogs and cats are the subcutaneous tissues of the neck and face.
Cuterebra
Among the myiasis-producing flies, this larva is known for its aberrant or erratic migrations, having been found in a variety of extracutaneous sites.
Cuterebra
They are diagnosed by observing the characteristic swollen, cystlike subcutaneous lesion, with a fistula or central pore communicating to the outside environment.
Second and third stage larvae are usually removed from these lesions.
Cuterebra
larva stage of most Cuterebra when recovered in a veterinary setting
second or third stage larvae
5-10 mm long, and cream to grayish white. They are often covered with tiny, black, tooth like spines.
Cuterebra second stage larvae
large, robust, coal-black, and heavily spined
Cuterebra third stage larvae
found in swollen, cyst like subcutaneous sites, with a fistula or pore communicating to the outside environment, which it breaths through.
Cuterebra Larval stages
Adult flies lay eggs near the entrance to rodent burrows.
Cuterebra
Pets usually contract this parasite while investigating or hunting rodent prey. As a result, the most commonly affected sites in dogs and cats are the subcutaneous tissues of the neck and face.
Cuterebra
Usually occur during the late summer and early fall
Cuterebra
The most commonly affected sites in dogs and cats are the subcutaneous tissues of the neck and face.
Cuterebra
Among the myiasis-producing flies, this larva is known for its aberrant or erratic migrations, having been found in a variety of extracutaneous sites.
Cuterebra
They are diagnosed by observing the characteristic swollen, cystlike subcutaneous lesion, with a fistula or central pore communicating to the outside environment.
Cuterebra
entire life cycle is almost a year
Ox Warbles or Cattle Grubs
bothersome to cattle as they approach to lay their eggs
Adult flies
Gadding
Cattle can become apprehensive and disturbed and attempt to escape by running away
Eggs are about 1mm long and are attached to hairs on the legs of cattle
Ox Warbles or Cattle Grubs
hatch in about r days and crawl down the hair shaft to the skin which they penetrate
Ox Warbles or Cattle Grubs
larvae
Cattle Grub Larvae
wander through the subcutaneous connective tissues in the leg and migrate through the esophagus or the region of the spinal canal and epidural fat until they reach the subcutaneous tissues of the back.
Here they create breathing holes in the skin of the dorsum; it is through these pores that they later exit and fall to the ground to pupate
Beelike and are covered with yellow to orange hairs
Cattle Grub adults
Cream to dark brown and covered with small spines
Cattle Grub Larvae
Consist of large cyst like swellings on the back, with central breathing pore
Cattle Grub Lesions
Larvae of the genus Cuterebra (wolf Warble) infest the skin of
1. rabbits
2. squirrel
3. mice
4. rats,
5. chipmunks
6. dogs
7. cats
They are usually removed from the breathing pore with forceps, taking great care not to crush the larva during extraction because anaphylaxis might result
Cuterebra
Cochliomyia Hominivorax
(primary screwworm) lavae of the blow fly
In obligatory myiasis the dipteran larvae lead a parasitic existence
Screwworms
is a primary invader of fresh, uncontaminated skin wounds of domestic animals.
Cochliomyia Hominivorax
These larvae must not be confused with the larvae of other myiasis-producing flies
Screwworms
Economically it is the most important fly that attacks livestock in the southwestern and southern United States.
Screwworms
Adult female screwworms are attracted to
attracted to fresh skin wounds on any warm-blooded animal
They lay batches of 15-500 eggs in a shingle-like pattern at the edge of wounds
They hatch within 24 hours
Screwworms
Larvae enter the wound, where they feed for 4-7 days before developing into third-stage (fully grown) larvae. They may be as long as 1.5cm in length, at this stage they resemble a wood screw
Screwworms
When fully grown larvae drop to the ground and pupate for about a week, after which the adult flies emerge.
Screwworms
The adult male and female fly breed only once during their lifetime, a fact that is used to control these flies biologically
Screwworms
Adult flies are shiny and greenish-blue, with a reddish orange head and eyes, and are 8-15 mm long.
Screwworms
Larvae often are identified by their wood screw shape and by the deeply pigmented tracheal tubes of the dorsal aspect of the caudal ends.
Screwworms
veterinarian must report any screwworm infestations to both state and federal authorities
Because of the obligatory nature of the screwworm to breed in the fresh wounds of any warm-blooded animal, the veterinarian must
eradicated from the United States but occasionally enter the country in imported animals.
Screwworms
smear
direct application of a wound dressing that kills screwworms
contain lindane or ronnel applied with a paint brush and should reach all the many pockets formed by the burrowing larvae, a thin layer should also be applied to the skin surrounding the wound to protect from reinfestation.
screwworm smears
aerosol, dust, or foam formulations of coumaphos, lindane, or ronnel.
other screwworm treatments
animals can be sprayed thoroughly with ronnel or sprayed or dipped in coumaphos
As a prophylatic measure to protect animals from infestation and also kill larvae in small, difficult –to-detect wounds
has been shown to clear wounds within 3 days and prevent reinfestation for 14 days following injection
(screwworms in cattle)
S.Q. injection of ivermectin
They are usually removed from the breathing pore with forceps, taking great care not to crush the larva during extraction because anaphylaxis might result
Cuterebra
Cochliomyia Hominivorax
(primary screwworm) lavae of the blow fly
In obligatory myiasis the dipteran larvae lead a parasitic existence
Screwworms
is a primary invader of fresh, uncontaminated skin wounds of domestic animals.
Cochliomyia Hominivorax
These larvae must not be confused with the larvae of other myiasis-producing flies
Screwworms
Economically it is the most important fly that attacks livestock in the southwestern and southern United States.
Screwworms
Adult female screwworms are attracted to
attracted to fresh skin wounds on any warm-blooded animal
They lay batches of 15-500 eggs in a shingle-like pattern at the edge of wounds
They hatch within 24 hours
Screwworms
Larvae enter the wound, where they feed for 4-7 days before developing into third-stage (fully grown) larvae. They may be as long as 1.5cm in length, at this stage they resemble a wood screw
Screwworms
When fully grown larvae drop to the ground and pupate for about a week, after which the adult flies emerge.
Screwworms
Filth Flies
.
House Fly
.
Blowfly Strike
.
Maggots
.
mosquitoes
.
Damage to hide caused by cattle grubs
.
Hypoderma bovis
Cattle Grubs
.
Adult fly and dead cow from screwworm
.
Screwworm infestation of eye and naval
.
Screwworm larvae
.
Cuterebra and breathing pores or
Fistula tracts
.
Cuterebra
.
Cuterebra larvae 3rd stage and a cuterebra breathing pore or fistula tract
.
Cuterebra
.