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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
"Depending on the ambiguous use of a key term."
Uncertain Use of a Key Term or Concept
"It confuses two different meanings of the word "xxxxx".."
Uncertain Use of a Key Term or Concept
"relies on interpreting a key term in two different ways."
Uncertain Use of a Key Term or Concept
"equivocates with respect to a central concept."
Uncertain Use of a Key Term or Concept
"allows a key term to shift in meaning from one use to the next."
Uncertain Use of a Key Term or Concept
"fails to define the term."
Uncertain Use of a Key Term or Concept
"makes an attack on the character on opponents."
Source Argument
"it is directed against the proponent of a claim rather then the claim itself."
Source Argument
"He directs his criticisim against the person making the argument rather than directing it against the argumrny itself."
Source Argument
"it draws conclusions about the merit of a position and about the content of tha position from evidece about the positions source."
Source Argument
"Assuming that a claim is false on the grounds that the person defending it is of questionable character."
Source Argument
"It assumes what is seeks to establish."
Circular Reasoning
"Argues circularly by assuming the conclusion is true in stating the premises."
Circular Reasoning
"presupposes the truth of what it sets out to prove"
Circular Reasoning
"the argument assumes what it is attempting to demonstrate"
Circular Reasoning
"It takes for granted the very claim that it sets out to establish"
Circular Reasoning
"it offers, in place of support for its conclusion, a mere restatement of that conclusion"
Circular Reasoning
"Confuses a necessary condition for a sufficient condition"

"confuses a sufficient condition with a required condition"
Errors of Conditional Reasoning
"Mistakes a temporal relationship for a causal relationship"
Mistaken Cause and Effect
"Confusing the coincidence of two events with a causal relation between the two"
Mistaken Cause and Effect
"Fails to exclude an alternative explanation for the observed effect"
Mistaken Cause and Effect
"The author mistakes an effect for a cause"
Mistaken Cause and Effect
"Refutes a distorted version of an opposing position"
Straw Man
"misdescribing the student representative's position, thereby making it easier to challenge"
Straw Man
"potrays opponents' views as more extreme than they really are"
Straw Man
"distorts the proposal advocated by opponents"
Straw Man
"The author cites irrelevant data"
General Lack of Relevant Evidence for the Conclusion
"draws a conclusion that is broader in scope than is warranted by the evidence advanced"
General Lack of Relevant Evidence for the Conclusion
"It uses irrelevant facts to justifiy a claim about the quality of the disputed product"
General Lack of Relevant Evidence for the Conclusion
"It fails to give any reason for the judgment it reaches"
General Lack of Relevant Evidence for the Conclusion
"It introduces information unrelated to its conclusion as evidence in support of that conclusion"
General Lack of Relevant Evidence for the Conclusion
"bases a conlcusion on claims that are inconsistent with each other"
Internal Contradiction
"the author makes incompatible assumptions"
Internal Contradiction
"introduce information that actually contradicts the conclusion"
Internal Contradiction
"offers in support of its conclusion pieces of evidece that are mutually contradictory"
Internal Contradiction
"some of the evidence presented in support of the conclusion is inconsistent with other evidence provided"
Internal Contradiction
"assumes something that it later denies, resulting in a contradiction"
Internal Contradiction
"The judgment of experts is applied to a matter in which their expertise is irrelevant"
Appeal Fallacies
Authority
"the argument inappropriately appeals to the authority if the mayor"
Appeal Fallacies
Authority
"it relies on the judgment of experts in a matter to which their expertise is irrelevant"
Appeal Fallacies
Authority
"accepts a claim on mere authority without requiring sufficient justification"
Appeal Fallacies
Authority
"It treats a popular opinion as if it constituted conclusive evidence for a claim"
Appeal Fallacies
Popular Opinion
"attempts to discredit legislation by appealing to public sentiment"
Appeal Fallacies
Popular Opinion
"a claim is inffered to be false merely because a majority of people believe it to be false"
Appeal Fallacies
Popular Opinion
"the argument, instead of providing adequate reasons in supposrt of its conclusion, makes an appeal to popular opinion"
Appeal Fallacies
Popular Opinion
"Attempts to persuade by making an emotional appeal"
Appeal Fallacies
Emotion
"uses emotive language in labeling proposals"
Appeal Fallacies
Emotion
"the argument appeals to emotion rather than reason"
Appeal Fallacies
Emotion
"Uses evidence drawn from a small sample that may well be unrepresentative"
Survey Errors
"states a generalization based on a selection that is not representative of the group about which the generakuzation is supposed to hold true"
Survey Errors
"generalizes from an unrepresentative sample"
Survey Errors
" supports a universal claim on the basis of a single example"
Exceptional Case/Overgeneralization
"The argument generalizes from too small a sample of cases"
Exceptional Case/Overgeneralization
"Too general a conclusion is made about investing on the basis of a single experiment"
Exceptional Case/Overgeneralization
"bases a genreal claim on a few exceptional instances"
Exceptional Case/Overgeneralization
"assuming that because something is true of each of the parts of a whole it is true of the whole itself"
"Errors on Composition and Division"
improperly infers that each and every scientist has a certain characterisitic from the premis that most scientists have that characteristic"
"Errors on Composition and Division"
"takes a view of one lawyer to represent the views of all lawyers"
"Errors on Composition and Division"
"presumes, without providing justification, that what is true of a whole must be true of each of its constituent parts."
"Errors on Composition and Division"