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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What 2 sensory characteristics make up flavor?
Aroma & taste
What must first be true about a food substance for it to be tasted?
It must be water soluble (dissolved)
What type of functional group do sweet, sour, salty, and bitter substances have in common?
What are the two proposed basic tastes in addition to salty, sweet, bitter, and sour?
Umami and astringency
What is this the definition of?
Sensation of puckering in the mouth, believed to be the result of tannins or polyphenols reacting with proteins.
What is this the definition of?
A savory and delicious sensation.
(flavor potentiators help to produce this taste sensation)
Name two foods that produce a pungent sensation.
Chilies, ginger, pepper, horseradish, mustard, garlic, onion
What is pungency?
a.warm/hot sensation in the mouth and lips
b.involves both taste and aroma
c.sensation that causes endorphins to be released which creates a pleasant sensation despite a painful sensation
d.b & c
e.a & c
What is capsaisin?
The compound in chilies that produces the pungent sensation.
Describe the sensation of this substance (Cool Mint Ice Breakers) and identify the substances or substances that are primarily responsible for this sensation.
Menthol (cyclic alcohol) or polyols
(in the case of Ice Breakers, it is the polyol Sorbitol)
Reaction flavors are flavors produced by chemical reactions taking place under controlled conditions.
(cheese production, kraut)
Reducing sugars and amines are necessary for which browning reaction?
Maillard reaction
(responsible for browning of meat, bread/pastry crust)
What is “a substance that does not impart its own flavor but instead enhances flavors naturally occurring in a food”?
Flavor potentiator or flavor enhancer
(MSG is an example)
Flavorings and flavor enhancers are synonyms.
(flavorings are substances that have a flavor of its own whereas flavor enhancers intensify the flavors naturally present in food)
Name one use for protein hydolysates in food manufacturing.
Enhance nutritive value (protein)
Add flavor
Why are some flavorings encapsulated?
For greater stability, or timed-release, or convenience; some flavors are sensitive to heat, pH, oxygen, moisture.
What does WOF stand for?
Warmed-over flavor
An unpleasant, stale taste in reheated meat
What type of reheating method will minimize WOF in meat?
Reheating in the microwave(nitrates and antioxidants can also reduce WOF)
The fat in food is subject to 2 types of rancidity. Name them.
Hydrolytic rancidity
Oxidative rancidity
Look at these two equations. Identify which type of rancidity each one represents.
Triglyceride + lipase enzyme è short-chain fatty acids + glycerol
(Hydrolytic rancidity)

Unsaturated Fas + heat, light, oxygen è hydroperoxides è alcohols, aldehydes, ketones
(oxidative rancidity)
…the perception of food structure when a food is held in the fingers, pushed by the tongue against the palate, or chewed by the teeth and sensed by the oral cavity; a combination of chemical forces and interaction between molecules
The study of the flow of matter in response to force.
(tells how fluid a liquid is (viscosity), how the fluid will be sensed by the tongue, how long it take to be cleared from palate)
What aspect of water is a predictor of food texture ?
Water activity
What food texture is associated with a high percent of bound water and a low level of water activity?
Hard textured foods
What is the basis for food texturizing agents? There are several – name at least two.
Starch, non-starch polysaccharides, protein
(Page 169, Table 6.13)
What are the 2 main functional properties of texturizing agents?
Viscosity and gelling
What is the main difference between fat substitutes and fat mimetics?
Substitutes have the same physical properties as fat whereas mimetics do not (contribute to creaminess and/or water availability without the flavor component).
What is the traditional method for overcoming meat toughness?
Weak acid additives: lemon juice (citric acid) or vinegar (acetic acid)
Sugar affects texture because it along with protein and starch compete for what in the food product?