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12 Cards in this Set

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How does stimulus strength affect axn potentials?
may change the frequency of action potentials
describe the current flow during an axn potential.
current flows from the active area of the membrane to the adjacent inactive area, thereby decreasing the potential in the inactive area to threshold
post synaptic potentials result from what type of channels?
ligand gated channels
what causes IPSP.
It is caused by an increase in the permeability of the subsynaptic membrane to potassium and/or chloride, whereas an increase in the permeability to sodium produces a depolarizing EPSP.
what is the cause of multiple sclerosis?
loss of myelin from nerves controlling muscles
what causes Parkinson's disease?
In Parkinson’s disease there is a loss of dopamine in certain brain structures (e.g. substantial nigra of the basal ganglia).
what are fxns of hypothalamus?
It contains cell groups responsible for neural regulation of sleep, diurnal cycles and endocrine coordination. It is an important area for homeostatic regulation of such functions as body temperature, feeding and drinking.
what are fxns of cerebellum?
The cerebellum among other brain regions is responsible for coordination of posture, balance and movement.
what is the blood brain barrier?
The blood brain barrier is a very important structure that regulates what substances can enter the extracellular fluid in the CNS, it prevents free exchange between blood and extracellular fluid. This barrier functions to prevent the passage of harmful substances into the brain tissue and is comprised of the cells that line the smallest blood vessels in the brain, not the largest.
what type of neurotransmission is regulated by glutamate?
excitatory
what are NMDA and AMPA?
These receptors are both ionotropic and ligand-activated ion channels. AMPA type increases permeability to Na+ ions, which depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane. NMDA type, however, is more specific to calcium ions and when activated allow for movement of calcium ions into the cell, which can therefore initiate many signaling events within the neurons.
what type of neurotransmission is provided by glycine, GABA, and Ach?
glycine: inhibitory in spinal cord and brainstem
GABA: inhibitory in brain
Ach: both