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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
personality
the dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influeces his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors
Psychological construct
a complex abstraction that encompasses the person's unique genetic and learning history and the ways these factors influence their responses to various environments or situations
Empirical evidence
observations of phenomena made by investigators
hypothesis
tentative theoretical statements about how events are related to one another, often stated as predictions about how the operation of one set of events will affect the operation of others
Theory
a number of interrelated conceptual staements that are created by investigators to account for a phenomenon or a set of phenomena
Inductive theory
generalizations or summary statements about phenomena derived from a set of facts; Does experiment THEN tries to give explanation
Conceptual definitions
precise concepts in a hypothesis; this allows for accurate measurement of results
Deductive theory
Observes phenomenon, comes up with hypothesis, then tests hypothesis
Postulates
core assumptions of a theory. Taken as self-evident in the theory
Propositions
general relational statements that may be true or false. Not tested directly
Conceptual definitions
precise concepts in a hypothesis; this allows for accurate measurement of results
Cognitive dissonance
painful motivational state created within a person when 2 or more thoughts, attitudes, or behaviors are mutually inconsistent
Debriefing
informing the study participants of the true nature and purpose of a study after it is completed
Experimental method
variables manipulated by experimenter and random assignment
Correlational coefficient
a numerical index of the size and direction of an association between 2 variables
Self report
written or verbal statements given by study participants on questionnaires and/or in interviews concerning their personality characteristics
Statistical significance
a numerical index of the probability that a particular result occurred by chance
Considered statistically significant if chance of finding it is less than 1 in 20 (5 in 100)
Partial correlational techniques
a correlational technique that allows an investigator to assess the relationship between two events by eliminating out the influences of other variables
Multiple correlation techniques
statistical technique where it is possible to determine the relationship between one variable and a combination of two or more other variables simultaneously
Correlational method
general procedure for establishing an association or relationship between events
Post hoc explanation
explanation of a phenomenon given after its occurrence
A priori predictions
predictions made before data are collected
Longitudinal studies
studies in which data are collected for the same individuals over time
Comprehensiveness
theory is better when it is widely applicable
Relational statements
theoretical propositions or hypotheses that link or relate constructs
Precision
an adequate theory should contain constructs and relational statements that are clearly and explicitly stated and measured
Parsimony
an adequate theory should be as economical as possible while still adequately accounting for the phenomena in its domain
Empirical validity
criterion for determining worth of theory; tested by collection of data to determine whether or not the theory is accurate
Heuristic value
criterion for judging the worth of a theory; should stimulate new ideas and research, should be challenging
Applied value
criterion or standard fro judging the scientific worth of a theory. A good theory provides creative solutions to problems that are of interest/concern to people.
Functionally related
behaviors that operate to secure the same outcome
Behavior potential
Potentiality of any behavior's occurring in any situation or situations as calculated in relation to any single reinforcement or set of reinforcements
Expectancy
whether or not we think an event is going to take place
Reinforcement value
how much we value a particular reinforcement as compared to another one
Psychological situation
the situation as it is defined from the individual's personal perspective
Freedom of movement
Rotter; mean expectancy of obtaining positive satisfactions as a result of a set of related behaviors directed toward obtaining a group of functionally related reinforcements
Minimal goal
Rotter; lowest goal in a continuum that will satisfy if acheived
Verbal representation
Bandura-a word that signifies an object in the environment
Anticipated outcomes
Bandura-a person's expectancy that the performance of certain behaviors will secure certain reinforcers
External reinforcement
Bandura; a reinforcing environmental stimulus that controls the occurrence of behavior
Observational learning
Bandura; type of learning in which new responses are made as a result of watching the performance of others
Triadic reciprocal determinism
Bandura; cognitive, behavior, and environmental influences all operate interactively as determinants of one another
Efficacy expectations
Bandura; beliefs or convictions on the part of individuals that they can produce certain behaviors
High freedom of movement
our needs are in tune with our expectations
4 major efficacy sources
Performance accomplishments
Vicarious experiences
Verbal persuasion
Emotional arousal