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55 Cards in this Set

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When do ecosystems change?
Ecosystems change over time, especially after disturbances, as some species die out and new species move in.
What is primary succession?
Succession that begins in an are with no remnants of an older community.
What is secondary succession?
A disturbance affects the community without completely destroying it, secondary succession occurs.
What is trophic level?
Each step in a food chain or food web.
What are ecological pyramids?
Pyramids that show the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain or food web.
What does pyramids of energy show?
Pyramids of energy show the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level of a food chain or food web.
What does pyramid of biomass illustrate?
They illustrate the relative amount of living organic matter available at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
What does pyramid of numbers show?
It shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
What are in chemical and physical processes?
Chemical and physical processes include the formation of clouds and precipitation, the flow of running water, and the action of lightning?
What is Geological processes?
Geological processes include volcanic eruptions, the formation and breakdown of rock, and major movements of matter within and below the surface of the earth.
What is a genus?
A group of similar species.
What is the goal systematic?
The goal of systematic is to organize living things into groups that have biological meaning.
What is the largest taxa in Linnaeus's classification system?
Kingdom.
What can species do?
They can reproduce and produce fertile offspring.
What is phylogeny?
The study of how living and extinct organism are related to one another.
What is the goal of phylogenetic systematics?
The goal of phylogenetic systematics, or evolutionary classification, is to group species into larger categories that reflect lines of evolutionary descent, rather than overall similarities and differences.
What is a clade?
A group of species that include a single common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor-living and extinct.
What are the six-kingdom system of classification?
Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
What does a cladogram do?
A cladogram links groups of organisms by showing how evolutionary lines, or lineages, ranched off from common ancestors.
What does the tree of life show?
The tree of life shows current hypotheses regarding evolutionary relationships among the taxa within the three domains of life.
What is evolution?
The process of change over time.
What did Darwin develop in his scientific theory of biological evolution?
It explains how modern organisms evolved over long periods of time through descent from common ancestors.
What are fossils?
Preserved remains or traces of ancient organism.
What did Darwin notice about the relationship with extinct animals and living species?
He noticed that some fossils of extinct animals were similar to living species.
What did Hutton and Lyell conclude about Earth?
They noticed that Earth is extremely old and that the processes that changed Earth in the past are the same processes that operate in the present.
What is artificial selection?
In artificial selection, nature provides the variations, and humans select those they find useful.
What is homologous structures?
Structures that are shared by related species and that have been inherited from a common ancestor.
What is a gene pool?
Consists of all the genes, including the different alleles for each gene, that are present in a population.
What is allele frequency?
The number of times an allele occurs in a gene pool, compared to the total number of alleles in that pool for the same gene.
What are polygenic traits?
Many traits that are controlled by two or more genes.
What is bacteriophage?
A kind of virus that infects bacteria.
What did Hershey and Chase's experiment with bacteriophages confirm?
It confirmed Avery's results, convincing many scientists that DNA was the genetic material found in genes-not just in viruses and bacteria, but in all living cells.
What is the role of DNA?
The role of DNA is that it makes up genes and must be capable of storing, copying, and transmitting the genetic information in a cell.
What does double-helix model explain?
It explains Chargaff's rule of base pairing and how the two strands of DNA are held together.
What is replication?
The process that occurs during late interphase of the cell cycle, and duplicates its DNA in this copying process.
What do DNA polymerase do?
DNA polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA.
What are telomeres?
DNA at the tips of chromosomes.
The three main differences between RNA and DNA are what?
THe three important differences between RNA and DNA are first, the sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose, second RNA is generally single-stranded and not double-stranded, third RNA contains uracil in place of thymine.
How is the genetic code read?
The genetic code is read three letters at a time, so that each word is three bases long and corresponds to a single amino acid.
Why do ribosomes use the sequence of codons in mRNA for?
Ribosomes use the sequence of codons in mRNA to assemble amino acids into polypeptide chains.
What is genetics?
The scientific study of heredity.
What is fertilization?
During sexual reproduction, male and female reproductive cells join in this process.
What is a trait?
A specific characteristic, such as seed color or plant height.
What is Mendel's principle of dominance?
This principle states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.
A karyotype shows what?
A karyotype shows the complete diploid set of chromosomes grouped together in pairs, arranged in order of decreasing size.
A sex-linked gene is what?
A gene located on a sex chromosome.
A pedigree shows what?
A pedigree hows the presence or absence of a trait according to the relationships between parents, siblings, and offspring.
Why do humans use selective breeding?
Humans use selective breeding, which takes advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation, to pass wanted traits on to the next generation of organisms.
How can breeders increase the genetic variation in a population?
Breeders can increase the genetic variation in a population by introducing mutation, which are the ultimate source of biological diversity.
What is biotechnology?
The application of a technological process, invention, or method to living organisms.
What is ecology?
Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their physical environment.
What is a biotic factor?
Any living part of the environment with which an organism might interact, including animals, plants, mushrooms, and bacteria.
What is an abiotic factor?
Any nonliving part of the environment, such as sunlight, heat, precipitation, humidity, wind or water currents, soil type, etc.
What is photosynthesis?
Process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such a sugars and starches.
What is chemosynthesis?
Process in which chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates.