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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 2 types of statistics?
Specific Numbers and Method of analysis.
What are Specific Numbers?
numerical measurement determined by a set of data
What is Method of Analysis?
A collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, pressenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data.
The complete collection of all elements

The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied.
the collection of data from every element in a population
a subcollection of elements drawn from a population
every ten years each person is to be counded in the US(really big sample)
US Census
a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population

a numerical meansurement describing some characteristic of a sample
numbers representing counts of measurements
Quantitive Data
can be separated into different categories that are distinuished by some nonumeric characteristics
ex: genders of college students
Qualitative data
number of possible values is either a finite number or a countable number of possible values
ex: number of eggs a chicken lays
Dicrete Data
what are the 4 types of data
nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
data, characterized that consists of names, lables, or categories only. the data cannot be arranged in a ordering scheme

ex: survey resonses: yes, no, maybe
Nominal (data)
data, that may be arranged in some order, but differencces between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless

ex: A, B, C, D, E, F...
ordinal (data)
data, in which values are meaningful but there in no natural zero starting point

ex: years, 1000, 2000, 1778, 1990
interval (data)
data, in which it includes the natural zero starting point(where zero indicates taht none of the quantity is peresent

differences and ratios are meaningful in this level
Ratio (data)
What fields of study benefit statistics?
Almost all fields
what are self-selected surveys?
surveys in which the reasondents themselves decide whethre to be included
why are small samples bad?
they can be misleading

the smaller the sample size the less representative
what are loaded questions?
survey questions worded to eleict a desired response
what should you always look at to make sure graphs are not misleading?
the actual numbers
What is pollster pressure?
where the subject often provides responses that are favorable to their self image

the way the question is asked can change the answer
what is bad about estimates?
they can sometimes just be guesses
What are the 4 steps to designing of experiments?
1.identify you objective
2.collect sample data
3. use random procedure
4. analyze the data and form conclusions
What is observational study?
observing something and measuring the characteristics
what is an experiment?
applying some treatment and then observing its effects
What are the 2 groups of experimental subjects?
the treatment group and the control group.
what is the treatment group in an experiment?
the group of subjects that get the actual treatment
what is the control group in an experiment?
the part of the subjects who don't get a particular treatment
what is the placebo effect?
when a control subject believes they are geting the treatment and reports improvement
what is blinding?
when the subjects doesnt know if they are getting the treatment or the placebo
what is double blinding?
when the subjects nor the reasearchers know who is getting the treatment and who is geting the placebo
when picking a group of subjects what should you consider?
groups of subjects that are similar
what is replication?
when an experiment is repeated on a sample of subjects that is large enough so that we can see the effects
what is confounding?
occurs in an experiment when the effects from 2 or more varibles cannot be distinguished from each other
what is random sampling?
every single person has an equal chance of being used for the sample
what is systematic sampling?
when a starting point is selected and they select every "K" person
what is convenice sampling?
using results that are readily avaible like who ever is around
what is stratified sampling?
subdiving the population into subgroups that share the same characteristics, and then drwling a sample of the members
what is a cluster sampling?
dividing the population into sections; randomly selecting some of those clusters; choose all the members from the cluster
what is a sampling error due to?
what is a nonsampling error due to?
data incorectally collected, recorded or analyzed