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43 Cards in this Set
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What are the 2 types of statistics?

Specific Numbers and Method of analysis.


What are Specific Numbers?

numerical measurement determined by a set of data


What is Method of Analysis?

A collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, pressenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data.


The complete collection of all elements
The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied. 
Population


the collection of data from every element in a population

Census


a subcollection of elements drawn from a population

sample


every ten years each person is to be counded in the US(really big sample)

US Census


a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population

parameter
(population>parameter) 

a numerical meansurement describing some characteristic of a sample

Statistic
(sample>statistic) 

numbers representing counts of measurements

Quantitive Data


can be separated into different categories that are distinuished by some nonumeric characteristics
ex: genders of college students 
Qualitative data


number of possible values is either a finite number or a countable number of possible values
ex: number of eggs a chicken lays 
Dicrete Data


what are the 4 types of data

nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio


data, characterized that consists of names, lables, or categories only. the data cannot be arranged in a ordering scheme
ex: survey resonses: yes, no, maybe 
Nominal (data)


data, that may be arranged in some order, but differencces between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless
ex: A, B, C, D, E, F... 
ordinal (data)


data, in which values are meaningful but there in no natural zero starting point
ex: years, 1000, 2000, 1778, 1990 
interval (data)


data, in which it includes the natural zero starting point(where zero indicates taht none of the quantity is peresent
differences and ratios are meaningful in this level 
Ratio (data)


What fields of study benefit statistics?

Almost all fields


what are selfselected surveys?

surveys in which the reasondents themselves decide whethre to be included


why are small samples bad?

they can be misleading
the smaller the sample size the less representative 

what are loaded questions?

survey questions worded to eleict a desired response


what should you always look at to make sure graphs are not misleading?

the actual numbers


What is pollster pressure?

where the subject often provides responses that are favorable to their self image
the way the question is asked can change the answer 

what is bad about estimates?

they can sometimes just be guesses


What are the 4 steps to designing of experiments?

1.identify you objective
2.collect sample data 3. use random procedure 4. analyze the data and form conclusions 

What is observational study?

observing something and measuring the characteristics


what is an experiment?

applying some treatment and then observing its effects


What are the 2 groups of experimental subjects?

the treatment group and the control group.


what is the treatment group in an experiment?

the group of subjects that get the actual treatment


what is the control group in an experiment?

the part of the subjects who don't get a particular treatment


what is the placebo effect?

when a control subject believes they are geting the treatment and reports improvement


what is blinding?

when the subjects doesnt know if they are getting the treatment or the placebo


what is double blinding?

when the subjects nor the reasearchers know who is getting the treatment and who is geting the placebo


when picking a group of subjects what should you consider?

groups of subjects that are similar


what is replication?

when an experiment is repeated on a sample of subjects that is large enough so that we can see the effects


what is confounding?

occurs in an experiment when the effects from 2 or more varibles cannot be distinguished from each other


what is random sampling?

every single person has an equal chance of being used for the sample


what is systematic sampling?

when a starting point is selected and they select every "K" person


what is convenice sampling?

using results that are readily avaible like who ever is around


what is stratified sampling?

subdiving the population into subgroups that share the same characteristics, and then drwling a sample of the members


what is a cluster sampling?

dividing the population into sections; randomly selecting some of those clusters; choose all the members from the cluster


what is a sampling error due to?

randomness


what is a nonsampling error due to?

data incorectally collected, recorded or analyzed
