Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/127

Click to flip

127 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Process
Projection, bump
Foramen
A hole through a bone
Fossa
A shallow depression
Head
The proximal end of a bone that fits into a joint
Neck
Part of the bone under the head
Ramus
An extention of a bone
Calcitriol
Produced in kidneys and helps produce calcium phosphate
Growth Hormone
Made in pituitary gland
Thyroxine
Bone growth; produced in thyroid gland
Sex Hormones
Produced in ovaries and testes
Parathyroid Hormone
Increases how much calcium we store; produced in the parathyroid gland
Calcitronin
Decreases calcium storage; produced in thyroid gland (C cell)
Axial Skeleton
Skull and associated bones, Thoracic area, vertibral column; based on midline long axis of the body; Made up of 80 bones
Appendicular Skeleton
Shoulder girdle, pelvic bones, lower extremedies; Made up of 126 bones
Sections of Vertebral Column
Cervical, Thorasic, and Lumbar Vertebrae; Sacral and Coccyx(fused).
Atlas
First cervical vertebrae; Allows us to move head yes
Axis
Second cervical vertebrae; allows us move head no
True Ribs
First seven ribs; insert into sternum
False Ribs
The bottom five ribs; the first three are attached to the sternum by cartilege
Floating Ribs
The last two of the false ribs that don't attach to any cartilege
Articulation
Another name for a joint
Fibrous
Two bones connected togeather by tough fibrous connective tissues, ex. skull
Cartilaginous
Bones are connected togeather by cartilege connective tissue, ex. between vertebrae
Synovial
Joint cavity filled with synovial fluid, articular capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilege, reinforcing ligaments; ex. Joints of extremedies
Synarthrosis
No motion
Amphiarthrosis
Modest degree of motion
Diarthrosis
Freely movable
Tendons
Attachment of muscle to bone
Ligaments
Attach bone to bone
Bursae
Lubricating sacts found in joints that connect to ligaments
Hinge Joint
Elbow, knee
Pivot Joint
C2 axis to C1 atlas joint
Ball-and-socket Joint
Shoulders, hips
Saddle Joint
Thumb Joint
Gliding Joint
Knuckle
Elipsoidal Joint
Wrist moving on forearm
Luxation
Dislocation
Subluxation
Partial dislocation
Flexion
Head down
Extention
Head straight forward
Hyperextention
Head straight up
Abduction
Moving away from the core of the bod
Adduction
Moving towards the core of the body
Roatation
Arm out turning it over
Circumduction
Moving arm full circles
Supination
Palms up
Pronation
Palms down
Inversion
Outside of the foot is stood on
Eversion
Inside of the foot is stood on
Plantar flexion
Point toe down
Dorsiflexion
Heel down toe up
Retraction
Pull shoulders back
Protraction
Push shoulder forward
Sprain
Tear to one of the boney ligaments, and sometimes cartilege tears
Bursitis
Inflammation in the bursae sac which helps support joints
Tendonitis
Inflammation of the tendon
Arthritis
Inflammation and degredation to cartilege in a joint
Types of Arthritis
Degenerative(Osteoarthritis), Theumatoid(autoimmune and no known cause), Septic(From blood born infection), Gouty(Innability to clear out uric acid)
Smooth Muscle
Respiratory, Giestive, Urinary, Reproductive, Blood vessels
Cardiac Muscle
Heart only. Automaticity(pacemaker). Part of Autonomic N.S. Does not have the capability to produce tetany
Skeletal Muscle
Excitable, Contractile, Elastic, Heal Poorly, Distensible. Produce motion, stability, heat. Maintain posture, sphincter guard entrances and exits. Enhances venous return to the heart
Perimysium
Envelope that wraps muscles fassicles
Fasicles
Smaller parts inside of muscle
Endomysium
Envelope the muscle fibers(cells)
Epimysium
Envelop the entire muscles
Origin
Site of attachment, proximal, site of lesser motion
Insertion
Normally distal, site of freater motion
Circular
sphincter muscles, create cicatrical movement when contracting
Convergent
Almost triangular fashion; ex. Pectoralis Major
Parallel
Fibers run parallel
Fusiform
Big center with tapered ends; ex. bicep
Pennate
Feathering effect; 3 forms uni, bi, multi
Sarcolemma
Wrapping around muscle
Sarcoplasm
liquid in the muscles
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
the factory of the muscles, produces ionic calcium
Agonist
Prime mover
Anagonist
Muscle which opposes the prime mover
Synergist
Muscle that helps do the work
Fixator
Muscle which produces immobilization
Sarcomere
Functional unit of a skeletal muscle
Motor Unit
Never and all muscle cells it controls
5 Statements About Muscles
1.All muscles cross one joint
2.Bulk of muscle lies proximal to joint
3.Have at least two attachment points(origon & insertion)
4.Can only pull
5.During contrction insertion moves towards origion
Efferent
A sensory nerve moving away from a reference point
Afferent
Sensory nerve moving toward a reference point
Somatic(Afferent)
Sensation of feeling pain on skin and in bones
Special(Afferent)
Sense of smell, sight, hearing, taste, and balance
Visceral(Afferent)
Heart beating fast, carmps, heartburn
Somatic(Efferent)
Movement of muscles
Autonomic(Efferent)
Involuntary muscles, heartrate, sigestion
Sympathetic(Efferent)
Fight and Flight
Parasympathetic(Efferent)
Resting and digesting
Epinerium
Outside covering of a nerve
Perinuerium
Covers never fibers
Endonerium
Covers nerve cells
Neuron
Functional part of nervous system
Oligodendrocyte
Provides the insulation around the neurons
Astrocytes
largest cell, most numerous, starr shaped, responsible for being the structured frame work for CNS also provides a blood-brain barrier limit connect between blood and neurons
Microglial
Rarest, smallest cells, fagocytes of nervous system responsible for identifying agents
Ependymul
Line and cover the brain line ventricles line central canal
Unmyelinated
Uninsulated cells, become gray matter, cell bodies are usually unmyelinated
Myleinated
Insulated nerves, white matter, axons are myelinated by oligodendrocytes
Periphreal Nervous System
Myleinated, Cell bodies(sattelite cells), Axons(schwann cells)
Brain
Cerebral Cortex(two hemispheres), Diencephalan, Midbrain(Pons, medulla Oblongata), Brain Stem, Spinal Cord
Coverings
Dura Mater, Arachnoid, Piamater
Ventricles
Holes, filled with cerebral spinal fluid(cushions brain and supplies nutrients, gets rid of waste)
Cerebral Spinal fluid amount
150cc's. Made in 3rd ventricle in Choroid plexus. Make 500 cc's a day
Cerebellum
Balance, coordination of motor activities
Central Sulcus
Main, deeper groove in the brain
Cerebrum
Intellect
Cerebellum
Fine motor coordination, balance
Diencephalon
thalmus, hypothalmus, pituitary, coordinating, link between nervous and dendocrine system
Brain stem
Midbrain, pons, medulla oblingata. Responsible for vegetative system. Autonomous nervous system.
Frontal
Motor act
Parietal
Sensory act
Occipital
Visual center
Temporal
Hearing and smell center
Cerebral cortex
Grey matter
White matter
Axons(myelinated)
Limbic System
motivational and emotional
Basal Nuclei
efferent
Thalmus
Relay station for the nervous motor activity
Pons
Respiration
Medulla Oblongata
BP, HR, Vomitting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing
Periphrial Nervous System
13 pairs of Cranial nerves(orig. in brain) 31 pairs of spinal nerves(originate in spine)
Cervical Plexus
C1-C5
Brachial Plexus
Family of nerves responsible for sensation and motor activity in supper arm C5-T1
Lumbar Plexus
Ciatic nerves. Controls from posterior pelvis to feet.