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56 Cards in this Set

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Label these parts of the Basal Ganglia
1. Thalamus 2. Caudate Nucleus 3. Putamen 4. Globus Pallidus Interna/Externa 5. Subthalamic Nucleus 6. Substantia Nigra 7. Red Nucleus
Virtually all inputs to the basal ganglia arrive via ________. Outputs leave the basal ganglia via the ________ ________ ________ and the ________ ________ ________ ________.
Inputs enter STRaight through the STRiatum and outputs Go out via the Globus Pallidus and Substantia Nigra
Which two structures comprise the "striatum" in the basal ganglia?
Caudate Nucleus and the Putamen.
Which two structures comprise the "lentiform" nucleus?
Putamen and the Globus Pallidus.
It's called lentiform because it looks like a lentil
What are the two parts that comprise the globus pallidus?
Internal segment and external segment.
What is the internal capsule and what is its relation to the basal ganglia?
The internal capsule is a continuation of the corona radiata as it funnels down into more compact tracts.
Location: Passes through the gaps between the cellular bridges.
Pages 692-693 in Blumenfeld
The head of the caudate connects primarily to the ________ lobe, the body of the caudate to the ________ lobe, and the tail to the ________ lobe.
Frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, and Temporal lobe.
Remember by visualizing what these structures are closest to within the brain.
What are the four "channels" of the basal ganglia.
Cognition, Occularmotor, Motor, and Emotion.
Remember the word "COME"
What do the terms "bradykinesia" and "bradyphrenia" mean?
Slow moving and slow thinking.
"brady"=slow (as in bradycardia=slow heart rate)
"phrenia"=thinking (as in schizophrenia=split thinking)
The ________ pathway travels from the striatum and has a net excititory effect on behavior and the ________ pathway has a net inhibitory effect on behavior
Direct Pathway and Indirect Pathway.
In Parkinson's Disease, the ________ pathway is impaired, causing a reduction in excitation of movement and thinking.
Direct Pathway
DIrect=Disinhibitory pathway activity is reduced, causing bradykensia and bradyphrenia.
In Huntington's Disease, the ________ pathway is impaired, causing a net increase in movement.
Indirect Pathway
INdirect=Inhibitory pathway activity is reduced, causing ballismus.
In addition to the better recognized "prototype" disorders associated with the basal ganglia (Parkinson's & Huntinton's) what are two other disorders associated with basal ganglia abnormalities?
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette's Syndrom.
Clumsy stiff movements and hyperreflexia caused by corticospinal & upper motor neuronal damage are known as ________, while abnormal movements caused by basal ganglia dysfunction are known as ________, while jerky, uncoordinated movements associated with cerebellum damage is known as ________.
Spasticity, Dyskinesia, Ataxia.
Label these parts of the Cerebellum
1. Horizontal Fissure 2. Primary Fissure 3. Vermis 4. Anterior Lobe 5. Posterior Lobe.
The primary fissure of the cerebellum divides the cerebellum in an ________ lobe and ________ lobe.
Anterior & Posterior.
Primary fissure is a very deep fold which runs HORIZONTALLY.
The cerebellum forms the roof of the ____ ventricle.
Fourth Ventricle.
In the cortex, ridges are referred to ________ while cerebellum ridges are called ________.
Gyri & Folia
Think Foliage because they look like leaves (Folia=leaves)
The thick, durable shealth which looks much like the dura matter and separates the cerebellum from the inferior occipital lobes is called ________ ________.
Tentorium Cerebelli
The three main functional regions of the cerebellum are
_____ & ________ lobe, ________ hemispheres, and ________ hemispheres.
Vermis and Flocculonodular lobe, Intermediate hemisphere, and Lateral hemisphere.
Remember the mnemonic "The Volleyball Flew Into the Lake."
The Vermis is important in control of ________ muscles.
Proximal and trunk muscles.
Lesion cause truncal ataxia and vertigo.
The flocculonodular lobes are important in ________-_____ control.
Vestibulo-occular control (balance and related eye-movements).
Recall that when someone is very dizzy/drunk, their eye movements tend to be affected as well.
The intermediate hemispheres is mainly involved in control of more distal (distant) parts of the appendicular muscles in the _____ and _____
Arms and Legs.
"Appendicular" refers to the word "Appendage." Arms and legs are both appendages.
The largest functional unit of the cerebellum is the ________ hemispheres and is involved in ______ ________ for the extremities.
Lateral Hemisphere, motor planning.
It's also involved in cognitive functioning.
Ataxia always occurs on the ________ side of a lesion on the cerebellum or nearby structures.
Ataxia consists of two different components or aspects:________ & ________.
Dysmetria and Dysrhythmia.
DYSMETRIA=Difficulty judging the required effort to move muscles through a given distance--thus overshooting or undershooting a traget.
DYSRHYTHMIA=Deficit in the timing or sequencing of movement.
The walls of the forth ventricle are formed by the ________ ________.
Cerebellar Peduncles.
There are three peduncles: Superior, Middle, and Inferior.
All cerebellar axons projecting upward are ________ while all axons projecting downward are ________.
Excitatory & Inhibitory.
Upward projecting axons are from mossy & climbing fibers, downward projecting axons are from purkinje, stelate, basket, and golgi cells.
The Superior peduncle contains primarily ________ from the cerebellum, while the middle and inferior contain primarily ________ from the cerebellum.
Outputs & Inputs.
Mnemonic: the highest peduncle (superior) is closest to the higher levels of processing--therefore it makes sense that it contains outputs. Conversely, it makes sense that the two lower peduncles contain inputs.
The Tentorium Cerebelli, which has sharp, stiff edges can cause damage if the brain ________ during swelling.
Cerebellar lesions are associated with ________ _____ in contrast to basal ganglia lesions which are associated with ________ _____.
Intentional tremor & resting tremor.
What are two ways cerebellar and basal ganglia functions are similar?
1. smoothing motor movement 2. involvment in higher cognitive processing.
The "prototypical disease" of the cerebellum and it's symptoms are what?
Alcohol Intoxication. Sx: "whirlies" (vertigo, poor balance); unstable gait (truncal ataxia); awkward arm and leg movements (appendicular ataxia); slurred articulation; slowed thinking and poor judgment.
Label the main structures of the the brain stem and surrounding structures.
1. Medulla Oblongata 2. Pons 3. Midbrain 4. hypthalamus 5. Thalamus 6. Diencephalan 7. Corpus Callosum 8. Cerebral Acqueduct 9. Reticular Formation 10. Spinal Cord
The somatic nervous systems consisits of _______ nerves that convey messages from sense organs to the CNS and ________ nerves that carry motor signals from the CNS to muscles.
Afferent & Efferent
Afferent for Away from the periphery and Efferent for Exit from the central.
The central nervous system is covered by three protective layers Meninges. These three layers are, from superior to inferior.
1. Dura 2. Arachnoid 3. Pia
Thinking PAD for padding.
The inner surface of the skull has ridges that divide the cranial cavity into several areas called ________.
The three fossae are ________, ________, & ________.
Anterior Fossa, Middle Fossa, & Posterior Fossa.
Think MAP
The meninges form three spaces called?
Epidural Space, subdural space, & Subarachnoid space.
When referring to orientation below the midbrain, the term equivalent to anterior is ________, posterior is ________, superior is ________, & inferior is ________.
Ventral, Dorsal, Rostral, & Caudal.
When referring to orientation above the midbrain, the term equivalent to anterior is ________, posterior is ________, superior is ________, & inferior is ________.
Rostral, Caudal, Dorsal, & Ventral
CSF is produced by the ________ ________.
Choroid Plexus.
________ are holes spread throughout the skull. The largest is known as the ________ ________.
Foramina & Foramen magnum.
Latin translation means big hole.
When the ventricles become enlarged, is condition is called what?
A dissection which cuts through the brain from top to bottom, so that the plane is parallel to the face is called the ________ plane of dissection.
The plane which divides the two hemispheres and is derived from the Latin word for "archer" is call the ________ plane of dissection.
The plane of dissection which is parallel to the ground is called the ________ plane of dissection.
The four lobes of the brain are:________ lobe, ________ lobe, ________ lobe, ________ lobe.
Frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, Temporal lobe, & Occipital lobe.
Which lobe is most closely assocaited with vision?
Occipital lobe.
Which lobe is most closely associated with hearing and language?
Temporal lobe.
Which lobe is most closely associated with "executive" functions?
Frontal lobe
The deep fold which divides the brain into left and right hemispheres is called the ________ ________.
Longitudinal Fissure.
Primary functions of the medulla include: ________ & ________
Respiration & Blood Pressure.
The "folds" in the brain are called ________, while the "bumps" are called ________.
Sulci (sulcus) & Gyri (gyrus).
The words "tract", "commissure", "association fibers", & "projection fibers" all refer to a collection of ______ ______, which represent the part of a neuron called the ______.
White matter & Axon.
the ________ is especially important because it is a sensory relay station for many different senses.