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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
strength training
a program designed to improve muscular strength and/or endurance through a seires of resistance (weight) training exercises that overload the muscular system and cause physiological development
activities of daily living
everyday behaviors that peopel normally do to function in life (cross the street, carry groceries, etc.)
age-related loss of lean body mass, strength, and function
all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells; necessary to sustain life
an increase in the size of the cell, as in muscle hypertrophy
resting metabolism
amount of energy (expressed in milliliters of oxygen per minute or total calories per day) an individual requires during resting conditions to sustain proper body function
anabolic steroids
synthetic versions of the male sex hormone testosterone, which promotes muscle development and hypertrophy
muscular strength
the ability of a muscle to exert max force against resisteance (for ex., 1 repetition maximum [or 1 RM] of the bench press exercise)
muscular endurance
the ability of a muscle to exert submaximal force repeatedly over time
one repetition maximum (1 RM)
the max amt of resistancean individual is able to lift in a single effort
decrease in the size of a cell
motor neurons
nerves connecting the central nervous system to the muscle
motor unit
the combo of a motor neuron and th emuscle fibers that neuron innervates
slow-twitch fibers
muscle fibers with greater aerobic potential and slow speed of contraction
fast-twitch fibers
muscle fibers with greater anaerobic potential and fast speed of contraction
overload principle
training concept that the demands placed on a system (cardiorespiratory or muscular) must be increased systematically and progressively over time to cause physiological adaptation (development or improvement)
specificity of training
principle that training must be done with the specific muscle the person is attempting to improve
specific adaptation to imposed demand (SAID) training
training principle stating that, for improvements to occur in a specific activity, the exercises performed during a strength-training program should resemble as closely as possible the movement patterns encountered in that particular activity
isometric training
strength-training method referring to a muscle contraction that produces little or no movement, such as pushing or pulling against an immovable object
range of motion
entire arc of movement of a given joint
dynamic training
strength-training method referring to a muscle contraction with movement
shortening of a muscle during muscle contraction
positive resistance
the lifting, pushing, or concentric phase of a repetition during strength-training exercise
lengthening of a muscle during muscle contraction
negative resistance
the lowering or eccentric phase of a repetition during a strength-training exercise
fixed resistance
type of exercise in which a constant resistance is moved through a joint's full range of motion
isokinetic training
strenth-training method in which the speed of the muscle contraction is kept constant because the equipment provides an accommodating resistance to match the user's force (maximal) through the range of motion
variable resistance
training using special machines equipped with mechanical devices that provide differing amounts of resistance through the range of motion
amount of weight that is lifted
progressive resistance training
a gradual increase of resistance over a period of time
a fixed number of reps
circuit training
alternating exercises by performing them in a sequence of three to six or more
the sum of all the repetitions performed multiplied by the resistance used during a strength-training session
a training approach that divides the season into cycles using a systematic variation in intensity and volume of training to enhance fitness and performance
an emotional, behavioral, and physical condition marked by increased fatigue, decreased performance, persistent muscle soreness, and mood disturbances, and feelings of "staleness" or "burnout" as a result of excessive physical training
plyometric exercise
explosive jump training, incorporating speed and strength training to enhance explosiveness
core strength training
a training program designed to strengthen the abdominal, hip, and spinal muscles (the core of the body)
a training program that uses exercises designed to help strengthen the body's core by developing pelvic stability and abdominal control; exercises are coupled with focused breathing patterns