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104 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
physical activity
bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires enrgy expenditure and produces progressive health benefits
A type of physical activity that requires planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to imporve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness
Sedentary Death Syndrome (SeDS)
Deaths that are attributed to a lack of regular physical activity
Chronic Diseases
illness that develop and last over a long time
Hypokinetic Disease
disease related to a lack of physical activity
Life Expectancy
number of years a person is expeted to live based on the person's birth year
Healthy Life Expectancy (HLE)
number of years a person is expected tolive in good health; this numbre is obtained by subtracting ill-health years from overall life expectancy
Risk Factors
Characteristics that predict the chances for developing a certain disease
The constant and deliberate effort to stay healthy and achieve the highest potential for well being
Physical Fitness
The general capacity to adapt adn respond favorably to physical effort
Health-related fitness
a physical state encompassing cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, muscular flexibility, and body composition
Skill-related fitness
components of fitness important for successful motor performance in atheltic events and in lifetime sports nad activities
Behavior modification
the process used to permanently change negative behaviors in favor of positive behaviors that will lead to better health and well-being
the desire and will to do something
the ultimate aim toward which effort is directed
an acornym for Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-specific goals
Steps required to reach a goal
Principles of Training
F-frequency (how often?)
I-intensity (how hard? EHR)
T-time (how long? 20-30 min)
T-type (what mode)
an electronic device that senses body motion and counts footsteps. Some also record distance, calories burned, speeds, and time spent being physically active
Activities of daily living
Everyday behaviors that people normally do to funtion in life (cross the street, carry groceries, lift objects, do laundry, sweep floors).
Vigorous Excercise
an exercise intensity that is either above 6 METs, 60% of maximal oxygen uptake, or one that provides a "subtantial" challenge to the individual.
Heart Rate Reserve
the difference between the maximal heart rate (MHR) and resting heart rate (RHR)
Intensity of Excercise
how hard a person has to excercise to improve cardiorespiratory endurance
Cardiorespiratory Training Zone
The range of intensity at which a person should exercise to develop the cardiorespiratory system
Mode of Excercise
form of excercise
Aerobic Excercise
activity that requires oxygen to produce the necessary energy to carry out the activity
Duration of Excercise
time excercising per session
a period preceding excercise when excercise begins slowly
a period at the end of an excercise session when excercise is tapered off
Frequency of excercise
how often a person engages in an exercise session
Overload principle
training concept holding that the demands placed on a body system must be increased systematically and progressively over time to cause physiologic adaptation
amount of weight lifted
specificity of training
a principle holding that, for a muscle to increase in strength or endurance, the training program must be specific to obtain the desired effects
Isometric excercise
strength training wiht muscle contraction that produces little or no movement
Dynamic/Isotonic Excercise
strength training with muscle contraction that produces movement
Free weights
barbells and dumbells
Fixed-resistance training
Excercise with strength-training equipment that provides a constant amount of resistance through the range of motion
Variable-resistance training
Excercise that utilizes special equipment with mechanical devices that provide differing amounts of resistance through the range of motion
Isokinetic Excercise
Strength training in which the equipment accommodates resistance to match the user's force thorugh the full range of motion
shortening of a muscle during muscle contraction
lengthening of a muscle during muscle contraction
Muscular Hypertrophy
an increase in muscle mass or size
the number of repetitions performed for a given excercise
the number of times a movement is performed
Slow-sustained stretching
technique whereby the muscles are lengthened gradually thoruhg a joint's complete range of motion and the final position is held for several seconds
Contraindicated Excercises
excercises that are not recommended because they pose potentially high risk for injury
using a combination of different aerobic activities to develop or miantian cardiorespiratory endurance
High-impact aerobics (HIA)
Excercise incorporating movements in which both feet are off the ground at the same time momentarily
Low-impact aerobics (LIA)
excercises in which at least one foot is in contact with the ground or floor at all times
Interval Training
a repeated series of excercise work bouts (intervals) intersersed with low-intensity or rest intervals
short for metabolic equivalent, the rate of energy expenditure at rest, or the equivalent of a VO2 of 3.5 ml/kg/min
Health related components
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
Muscular Strength & Endurance
Muscular Flexibility
Body Composition
Necessity of battery of tests
No single test can provide a complete measure of physical fitness. Since health related fitness has four components, this is necessary to determine an individual's overall level of fitness.
health fitness standards vs. physical fitness standards
physical fitness standard is set higher than the health fitness standard and requires more vigorous excercise program and promotes longer healthy life expectancy; health fitness standards simply promotes disease prevention and better health
Define Cariorespiratory Endurance
ability of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen to the cells to meet the demands of prolonged physical activity
Define maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)
maximum amount of oxygen the human body is able to utilize per minute of physical activity
Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Excercise Program
lower resting heart rate, blood pressure, blood lipids, recovery time following excercise, and risk for hypokinetic diseases, cardiac muscle strength increases, and oxygen-carrying capacity increases
Relationship between muscle hypertrophy and resting metabolism
as your muscle mass increases, it helps maintain ur resting metabolism
Muscular Strength
the ability to exert maximum force against resistance
Muscular Endurance
the ablility of the muscle to exert submaximal force repeatedly over a period of time
Muscular Flexiblity-->gender, age, activity levels
Gender-females are more flexible then males
Age-aging decreases the extensiblity of soft tissue, decreasing flexiblity
Activity Levels-lack thereof greatly decreases flexiblity
How does stretching prepare body for excercise?
they are helpful in warm-up routines to prepare body for more vigorous aerobic or strength training excercises
Body Composition
The fat and nonfat components of the body
Percent Body Fat
fat component of the human body
lean body mass
nonfat component of the body
essential fat
body fat needed for normal physiological functions
storage fat
body fat stored in adipose tissue
having too much stored fat
(weight * 705) / (height)^2
most important factor in well being
fitness and wellness benefits
better and longer life
relationship between hypokinetic diesease and physical activity
physical activity decreases, ur chances for hypokinetic diesease increase
Leading cause of death
cardiovascular disease and cancer 63%
Life expectancy
Big three that causes 800,000 deaths
tobbacco, poor diet/inactivity, alchohol abuse
7 diminsions of Wellness
physical, emotional, mental, social, environmental, occupational, spiritual
National health objectives
personal responsibility
health benefits for all people
health promotion/disease prevention
Benefits of physical activities
decrease: heart disease, diabetes, colon cancer, high blood pressure
calories used in energy due to physical activiy
1000 calories/week
Body Composition Assessments
Skinfold Thickness, Body Mass Index, waist circumfrence, girth measurements, underwater weighing
objective of aerobic excercise and how accompished
The objective of aerobic exercise is to improve the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system. To accomplish this, the heart muscle has to be overloaded like any other muscle in the human body.
how intensity of excercise impacts cardiorespiratory development
When you exercise to improve the cardiorespiratory system, you should maintain the heart rate between the 60 and 85 percent training intensities to obtain adequate development.
When and y THR recomputed
Following a few weeks of training, you may have a considerably lower resting heart rate. Therefore, you should recomputed your target zone periodically.
wat determines initial intenstiy rate of excercising
Physical activity or inactivity
how does the individual choose the mode of excercise
personal preference
options for excercise durations and still derive benefits of excercise
if the training is done at around 85%, 20 minutes of exercise is sufficient. At 40-50% intensity, the individual should train at least 30 minutes. Unconditioned people and older adults should train at lower percentages; therefore, the activity should be carried out over a longer period of time.
determine THR
(220-age-RHR) x intensity level + RHR
how long to lose benefit of regualar physical activity
2-8 months
overload principle and specificity of training work together to produce muscular strength and endurance
In order to produce muscular strength and endurance, you must systematically and progressively increase the demands placed on the body, but you must also use a training program that is specific to obtain the desired effects.
how do warming up and stretching differ
Warming-up is preparing the body for a strenuous exercise, but stretching is increasing flexibility in your muscles.
set personal fitness goals
Base your goals on the results of your initial fitness test and they should be measurable and time specific
category level
your chances of succeeding at exercise may be slim
Muscles work in pairs:
agonist and antagonist
anything that makes a muscle work
3 parts of the typical aerobic workou
Warm up, exercise, cool down
least expensive, safest, most popular aerobic excercise
cross training and its value
combines two or more activities. This type of training is designed to enhance fitness, provide needed rest for tired muscles, decrease injuries, and eliminates the monotony and burnout of single activity programs.
high impact vs. low impact
High impact- exercises incorporating movements in which both feet are off the ground at the same time momentarily
Low impact- exercises in which at least one foot is in contact with the ground or floor at all times
y is cycling more difficult heart rate?
The thigh muscles do most of the work in cycling making it harder to achieve and maintain a high cardiorespiratory training intensity
2 activities i would like
jogging and in-line skating
MET and its relationship with excercise intensity
Metabolic Equivalent- the rate of energy expenditure at rest, or the equivalent of a VO2 of 3.5 ml/kg/min
The harder a person exercises, the higher the MET level
Skill related components of physical fitness and their relationship iwth health related fitness
Agility, Balance, Coordination, Power, Reaction Time, Speed
As with the health related fitness components, the principles of specificity of training applies to skill related components
Proper practice of a handstand
pain does what for excerciser?
Pain is your body telling you something is wrong or your body is reaching its limit
stair climbing as aerobic activity
8-15 MET level and a high caloric expenditure