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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Species
Groups of actually or potentially interbreeding populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups.
Systematics
The study of relationships postulated to exist among species or higher taxa such as family and orders
Taxonomy
The theory and practice of describing biodiversity (including naming undescribed species, arrange diversity into classifications and devising identification keys.)
Cladistics
A method of hypothesizing relationships among organisms. Basic idea: members of a group share a common evolutionary history and are "closely" more so that other memers of the same groups than other organisms.
Synapomorphies
Shared derived characteristics
Apomorphies
Advanced characteristics
Plesiomorphies
Ancestral characteristics
Symplesiomorphies
shared ancestral characteristics
Autopormorphies
unique characteristics
Parsimony
The simplest explanation of a theory
Monophyletic
Common ancestor and babies
Paraphyletic
All in a group except one
Polyphyletic
Descended or derived from more than one ancestral stock or source.
Meristic
countable
Morphometric
measurable
Anatomical
Finshape, scale type, vertebra shape, vascular divisions, muscle divisions
(taxonomic)
Osteology
Study of bones
Neurocranium
holds brain, two divisions
Chondrocranium
bones of bone progenitor cells
Dermatochranium
bones make of skin progenitor cells
Branchiocranium/visceral cranium
Series of exoskeletal arches that originally formed as gill arch supports, holds jaw and gill
-5 arches
Mandibular Arch
Branchiocranium
bones that form the upper jaw
Palatine Arch
Branchiocranium
bones that form the roof the fishes mouth; often have teeth
Hyoid Arch
Branchiocranium
bones that support the lower jaw and opperculum
Hyoid Bones
connect the neurocranium to the branchiocranium
Opercular Arch
Branchiocranium
bones that form the opperculum (gill cover)
Branchial Arch
Branchiocranium
bones that support the gills
Evolution of the jaw
first arch became jaw, shark lower jaw, gill arches go from 9 to 4 or 5
Canine
large conical teeth frequently located in the corners of the mouth
Villiform
small fine teeth
Molariform
pavement like crushing teeth
Cardiform
fine pointed teeth, (as in pike) like a hairbrush
Incisor
large teeth with flat cutting surfaces
Axial Skeleton
The bones constituting the head and trunk of a vertebrate body.
Notochord
A linear group of cells that form the axis of a vertebrate. Most animals loose most of the notochord which becomes the disks between vertebra.
Sharks, Lungfish, Sturgeon, paddlefish and coelacanth fishes have retained a complete notochord.
Interneural Bones
around spinal?
Interhaemal
fin rays
Pectoral Girdle
Attached to the skull by the post-temporal bone.
-not attached to vertebral column
-for pectoral fins?
Pelvic Girdle
Free floating in their abdoment, attached by muscle, some abdominal position, thorasic position, or jugular position
-in sharks, the girdle is isochiopubic cartilage which is fixed in muscles.
Medial Fins
-First dorsal
-Second dorsal
-Dorsal finlet (scrombroids)
-Anal
-Adipose
Paired
-Pectoral
-Pelvic
Epidermis
outside layer of skin, no blood
Dermis
Inside layer of skin, vascularized
-collagen
Dermis structures
-mucin
-hagfish (thread cells=first mucous glands)
-Photopores=produce bioluminescence
-Chromatophores=color
Placoid
Sharks, diamond shaped, come to a point in the middle
Cosmoid
Fossils, large plate-like
Ganoid
usually rhomboidal in shape, bowfin, sturgeon, gar, epidermal checkered pattern
Cycloid
Dermal scale, regular type, round and paritally embeded
Ctenoid
Round with comblike protrusions
-ifmores
orders
-oidei
suborders
-idea
family
-inea
subfamily
-ini
tribe
Principle of Priority
States the the first validly described name for a taxon is the name to be used
Heuristic Model
Of or relating to a usually speculative formulation serving as a guide in the investigation or solution of a problem: “The historian discovers the past by the judicious use of such a heuristic device as the ‘ideal type’
Nonskeletal
associated with the gut and involuntary action
Cardiac
nonskeletal, striated, intertwined cells found only in heart
Skeletal
voluntary, striated, 40-60% of fishes' mass.
Myomeres
A muscular segment; one of the zones into which the muscles of the trunk, especially in fishes, are divided;
expaxial
above axis
hypaxial
below axis
supracarnalis
top keel
infracarnalis
bottom keel
red lateral muscles
most of sustained muscles w/ mitochondria and vascularized
Protractors
erect single fins
Retractors
depress single fins
Lateral Inclinators
bend soft rays
Abductors
pull paired fins away from the body
Adductors
pull paired fins toward the body
Tuna lateral rectus
muscles used by some scrombridae as heater organ to keep eye warm, burn glucose
Electric southern Stargazer
Upper edges of the four uppermost eye muscles form an electric organ, produce enough electricy to stun a human
Electroplax
Electric muscle tissue
Duct of Cuvier
The vein leading into the heart
Sinus venosus
Thin walled, non muscular, 1st chamber
Atrium
weakly muscular (2nd)
Ventricle
Highly muscular
Bulbous Arteriosis
4th chamber in telost heart, elastic
Conus Arteriosis
4th heart chamber in sharks
Ventral Aorta
Artery leaving the heart
Hagfish heart
1. cardial -to head
2. branchial -to gills
3. portal -to viscera
4. two caudal -blood back from tail
Gas Bladder
Gas filled sac located between the alimentary canal and the kidney. Filled with O2, CO2, and N. Controls bouyancy and aids in hearing, respiration.
Pneumatic Duct
Connection between gas bladder and gut (physostomic)
Physostomic
connected gas bladder
Physoclistic
unconnected gas bladder
Rete mirable
looping bundle of capillaries associated with the gas gland that functions as a countercurrent multiplier.
Oval
Resorptive region of the gas bladder, evolved from degeneration of the pneumatic duct and is highly vascularized
Anterior Kidney
hematopoesis
Posterior Kidney
Filter solutes
Calcium regulation
Produce blood cells
Remove excess water
Remove metabolic wastes
Pronephros
primative kidney