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145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Actinic (solar) keratosis
Squamous cell carcinoma
Acute gastric ulcer associaled with CNS injury
Cushing's ulcer (↑ ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
Acule gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon
Skip lesions (Crohn's disease: autoimmune)
Aneurysm, dissecting
Hypertension
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta
Atherosclerosis
Aortic aneurysm, ascending
3° syphilis
Atrophy of the mammillary bodies
Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)
Autospleneclomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)
Sickle cell anemia (HbS)
Bacteremia/pneumonia (IV drug user)
S. aureus
Bacteria associated with stomach cancer
H. pylori
Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)
Group B streptococcus (newborns). S. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)
Benign melanoeytic nevus
Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)
Bleeding disorder wilh Gplb deficiency
Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion)
Brain tumor (adults)
Supratentorial: mets > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma
Brain tumor (kids)
Infratenlorial: medulloblasloma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
Breast mass
1. Fibrocystic change2. Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
Breast tumor (benign)
Fibroadenoma
Bug in debilitated, hospitalized pneumonia patient
Klebsiella
Cardiac 1˚ tumor (kids)
Rhabdomyoma
Cardiac manifestation of lupus
Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting mitral)
Cardiac tumor (adults)
1. Metastasis 2. 1° myxoma (4:1 left lo right atrium; "ball and valve")
Cardiomyopathy
Dilaled cardiomyopalhy (40% are familial)
Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
Amold-Chiari malformation (often causes hydrocephalus)
Chronic arrhythmia
Atrial fibrillation (assodated with high risk of emboli)
Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)
Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
DES exposure in utero
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
21-hydroxylase deficiency
Congenital cardiac anomaly
VSD
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepalocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
Constrictive pericarditis in developing world
Tuberculosis
Coronary artery involved in thrombosis
LAD > RCA > LCA
Cretinism
Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism
Cushing's syndrome
1. Corticosteroid therapy 2. Excess ACTH secretion by pituitary
Cyanosis (early; less common)
Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
Cyanosis (late; more common)
VSD, ASD, PDA
Death in CML
Blast crisis
Death in SLE
Lupus nephropathy
Dementia
1. Alzheimer's disease 2. Multiple infarcts
Demyelinating disease
Multiple sclerosis
DIC
Gram-negalive sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma
Dietary deficit
Iron
Diverticulum in pharynx
Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)
Ejection click
Aortic /pulmonic stenosis
Esophageal cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma is the predominant form in the U.S.
Food poisoning
S. aureus
Cene involved in cancer
p53 tumor suppressor gene
Glomerulonephritis (adults)
Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
Gynecologic malignancy
Endometrial carcinoma
Heart murmur
Mitral valve prolapse
Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis
Mitral (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse), aortic (2nd affected in rheumatic fever)
Helminth infection (U.S.)
1. Enterobius vermicularis 2. Ascaris lumbricoides
Hematoma-epidural
Rupture of middle meningeal artery (arterial bleeding is fast)
Hematoma-subdural
Rupture of bridging veins (trauma; venous bleeding is slow)
Hemochromatosis
Multiple blood transfusions (can resull in CHF and ↑ risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Cirrhotic liver (often associated wilh hepatitis B and C)
Hereditary bleeding disorder
von Willebrand's disease
Hereditary harmless jaundice
Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
HLA-B27
Psoriasis, Ankylosing spondylitis, Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis), and Reiter's syndrome. (PAIR)
HLA-DR3 or-DR4
Diabeles meilitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
Holosystolic murmur
VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis
Virchow's triad (resulls in venous thrombosis)
Hypertension, 2°
Renal disease
Hypoparathyroidism
Thyroidectomy
Hypopituitarism
Adenoma
Infection in blood transfusion
Hepatitis C
Kidney stones
1, Calcium = radiopaque
2, Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-posilive organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)
3, Uric acid = radiolucent
Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L→ R becomes R→L)
"Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)
Liver disease
Alcoholic liver disease
Lysosomal storage disease
Gaucher's disease
Male cancer
Prostatic carcinoma
Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Malignant skin tumor
Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
Mental retardation
1. Down syndrome 2. Fragile X syndrome (FMR1 gene)
Mets to bone
Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney
Mets to brain
Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), Gl
Mets to liver
Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and lung carcinomas
Mitral valve stenosis
Rheumatic heart disease
Motor neuron disease
ALS
Myocarditis
Coxsackie B
Neoplasm (kids)
l.ALL 2. Cerebellar medulloblastoma
Nephrotic syndrome (adults)
Membranous glomerulonephritis
Nephrotic syndrome (kids)
Minimal change disease (associated with infections/vaccinations; treat wilh corticosteroids)
Obstruction of male urinary tract
BPH
Opening snap
Mitral stenosis
Opportunistic infection in AIDS
Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia
Organ receiving mets
Adrenal glands (due to rich blood supply)
Organ sending mets
Lung > breast, stomach
Osteomyelitis
S. aureus
Osteomyelitis in patients with sickle cell disease
Salmonella
Osteomyelitis with IV drug use
Pseudomona
Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breasl cancer
Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)
Ovarian tumor (benign)
Serous cystadenoma
Ovarian tumor (malignant)
Serous cystadenoearcinoma
Palpable purpura
small vessel vasculitis (immune complex type III), Fibrinoid necrosis.
Pancreatic tumor
Adenocarcinoma (head of pancreas)
Pancreatitis (acute)
EtOH and gallstones
Pancreatitis (chronic)
EtOH (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
Patient with ALL /CLL /AML /CML
ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, CML: adult > 60, AML: adult 35-50
Patient with Hodgkin's disease
Young male (except nodular sclerosis type: female)
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
Philadelphia chromosome l(9;22) (bcr-abl)
CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)
Pituitary tumor
1. Prolactinoma 2. Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
Pneumonia, hospital acquired
Klebsiella
Primary amenorrhea
Turner's syndrome (XO)
Primary bone tumor (adults)
Multiple myeloma
Primary hyperaldosteronism
Adenoma of adrenal cortex
Primary hyperparathyroidism
1, Adenomas 2, Hyperplasia 3, Carcinoma
Primary liver cancer
Hepatocellular carcinoma (also known as hepatoma)
Pulmonary hypertension
COPD
Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremilies
Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
Renal tumor
Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and adult polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndromes (erythropoietin, renin, PTH, ACTH)
Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause
Cor pulmonale
S3 (protodiastolic gallop)
↑ venlricular filling (L→R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])
S4 (presystolic gallop)
Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
Secondary hyperparathyroidism
Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
Sexually transmitted disease
Chlamydia
SIADH
Small cell carcinoma of the lung
Site of diverticula
Sigmoid colon
Site of metastasis
1. Regional lymph nodes 2. Liver
Sites of atherosclerosis
Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
Stomach cancer
Adenocarcinoma
Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
t(14;18)
Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
t(8;14)
Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(9;22)
Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl hybrid)
Temporal arteritis
Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery
Testicular tumor
Seminoma
Thyroid cancer
Papillary carcinoma
Tumor in women
Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent)
Tumor of infancy
Hemangioma
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)
Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)
Neuroblastoma (malignanl)
Type of Hodgkin's
Nodular sclerosis (vs, mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
Type of non-Hodgkin's
Diffuse large cell
UTI
E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)
Viral encephalitis
HSV
Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)
Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply)
zinc deficiency
rash on face, dysgusia, anosmia, poor wound healing
Nucleotide excision repair defect
Xeroderma pigmentosum (children of the night)
mismatach repair defect
HNPCC (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer)
Achondroplasia
Cell-signaling defect of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 3, Results in dwarfism; short limbs, but head and trunk are normal size. Associated with advanced paternal age.
Olser-Weber-Rendu syndrome
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Telangiectasia, recurrent epistaxia, skin discolorations, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).
Hereditary spherocytosis
[AD] Spheroid erythrocytes due to spectrin or ankyrin defect: hemolytic anemia; ↑ MCHC. Splenectomy is curative.