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69 Cards in this Set

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Cleavage (4)
within an hour of fertilization the zygote divides rapdily into blastomeres
no increase in size, slows after 12 divisions, animal and vegetal end created, no major developmental genes are expressed
Prokaryotes
Very little space that doesn't have genes
transcribed and translated at the same time
genes are called operons
Eukaryotes
made up of exons and introns, only exons part of mRNA to be translated
Modifications: revomove introns, add 5' cap and poly A tail
RNA polymerase
only functions in the 5-3 prime direction
Stem Loop
As the palindromic sequences are transcibed a stem loop forms which causes the RNA polymerase to pause and the RNA transcript to dissociate
Chargraff
said A/T = a, and C/G =1
Phosphodiester bond
how DNA forms a complex macromolecule
Avery
DNA holds genetic information
Hershey-Chase
T-even bacteriophages, P32, S35
Bacteriophage
attaches to cell wall
replication of DNA
assemply of mature phages
new phages released
Rosalind Franklin
bombarded DNA with X-ray source
concluded DNA was an alpha helix, 10 bp per turn, 2 nm
Cloning experiment
remove nucleus from egg and inserted into mammary epithelial cells
epithelials are constantly dividing
mammary are not fully differentiated
Hammerling
two different species of green algae with nucleus at base
Crossed green cap with brown base and got green cap because RNA can go outside of nucleus
after got brown cap and brown base
Totipotency
Depending on when the nucleus was taken from the cell determines whether or not it can be redirected
neuronal cells cannot be regenerated because there is no mitosis
Transgenetic organism
has a gene from a different species inserted into it
Stem cells
undifferentiated and dividing cells
Heriditary information must have
information
able to replicate accuratly
able to change
Origins of replication
sequence of repeated nucleotides that bind to a protein in replication
Helicase
unzips the DNA
SSB protein
maintains the parental strand as single stranded
Primase
DNA polymerase only adds nucleotides if there is already a base, so primase puts down an RNA primer at the beginig of each 5' end
Dispersive model
Two strands come apart and have mixture of the two, all are hybrids
Conservative model
parental strands unzip and replicate and parental strands come together and conservative come together
tRNA
bring amino acids to ribosomes during traslation
Aminoacytyl-tRNA-synthesase
adds the correct amino acids to the tRNAs
Initiation complex
leader sequences orient the 5' end of the mRNA on the ribosome
has tRNA, mRNA, IF, small subunit
Termination in translation
release factors recognize stop codons and polypeptide is released
Leader sequences
orient the 5' end fo of the mRNA on the ribosome
Promotor
In eukaryotes transcription starts at the RNA polymerase binding sites called promoters
In Prokaryotes sigma factor unwinds the DNA to be used as a template strand
Template vs. codon strand
template = 3-5
codon = 5-3
rRNA vs. tRNA
rRNA makes up ribosomes with ribosomal proteins
tRNA brings amino acids to ribosomes during translation
Gene expression
converting helix into single stranded RNA coded by ACGU
Transcription
using the template strand to create mRNA which can leave the nucleus
Translation
translating the triplet code into the amino acid sequence
Biochemical pathways
one gene codes for one polypeptide
Bidirectional replication
bacteria genomes have 4.6x10^6 bp and replicate 1000 nucleotides/second
eukaryotes have linear DNA 3.1x10^9 bp, so takes longer to replicate
DNA ligase
joins okazaki fragments (forms a phosphodiester bond to from the sugar phosphate backbone_
DNA Polymerase III
doughnut shaped, clamp protein and subunit that adds nucleotides
is the main rep. enzyme, proofreading, adds nucleotides, clamping
DNA polymerase I
Replaces RNA in the primer with DNA
Initiation of translation
needs mRNA, initiation factor, tRNA and small subunit
Syncytial blastomere
4000 nuclei in the cell with free communication between them
Neuralation
ectoderm thickens, neural tissue forms neural groove(becomes brain and spinal cord)
First stage of embryogenesis
nurse cells deposit maternal effect genes which determine basic polarity - cells do mitosis to have 4000 nuclei - go to periphery and form cell membrane
Larval Stage
growing and shedding exoskeleton
imaginal disks present which become the head, wings, lefs and adult fly
Pupal Stage
hard exoskeleton is breaking down and providing nutrients
Cell movement
move by adhesion molecules
use cytoskeleton space and cadherdin molecules as a road map
Cell induction
when a cell switches from one path to another as a result of an interraction with another cell
Connective tissue
intracellular space filled with polysaccharide chains and proteins
Determination
commitment to a developmental path (process of moving to a correct location and expressing genes)
Transcription factors
proteins that bind to the promoters to stimulate transcription
Homeotic genes
stimulate expression of genes for a particular anatomical structure
Homeobox genes
same order between organisms
Cleaving DNA
Sticky end - different fragments have overhang
Blunt end cutters - cut in the middel
Restriction endonucleases
sequences that are 4-6 nucleotides long, when sticky ends combine with complimentary ends are joined together with DNA ligase
Genetic engineering experiment
restriction enzymes cut DNA
fragments inserted into vectors
cloning
Beadle-Tatum experiment
damage DNA and grows on complete medium, to detemrmine nutritional defficiency grow on different medium
one gene-one enzyme
Ti Plasmid
vector for plants
herbicide resistance
flavr. savr tomatoe
nitrogen fixation
insect resistance
Genomic libraries
cDNA
genomic - entire genome of an organism
cDNA - all expressed genes
Hybridization process
plate bacteria on agar
lay filter paper to pick up DNA
denature DNA
hybridize with probe
dark spots where DNA is complimentary
Hybridization
use another gene as a probe. if the probe is similar they will hybridize together
Pair - Rule genes
establish segments in cellular blastoderm
Cell induction
cells secrete proteins that act as signals
Organizer cells produce morphagens which convey information
cell movement responds to morphagen gradietn
Gastrulation
some of the cells are pushed inward to make an invaginated gastrule
meso - bone, muscle, blood
endo gut, liver lungs
End of cleavage
blastomeres pump water inside the cell and end with a hollow mass of cells
Nucleic acids
5 carbon sugars
nitrogen base, purines (ag) pyrimidines (ctu)
base at 1 carbon and PO4 at 5 carbon
Watson and Crick
double stranded, 10 bp per turn, AT-two bonds, GC-three bonds
Briggs-King
took an early egg cell and inserted into an epithelial cell
Maternal effect genes
bicoid and nanos set up transcription factors and stimulate gap genes which divides the cell into subsections
Transcription bubbel
contains RNA polymerase, DNA, and RNA transcript