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24 Cards in this Set

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clovis
f
folsom, NM
- discovered in 1920; helped to provide evidence for the theory that the new world ancestors crossed the land bridge to get here
- scientists found a point among a bison's ribs
D'yuktai culture
siberian; suggests possible ancestor cutlure
band
small numbers of families (around 75 people) ; these groups had no central leader, decisions were formed by an adult consensus; there was limited economic vaiation; highly mobile; huntering and gathering lifestyle; used currated tools; yet:
- limited dna diversity (suspectible to diseases); shifty geenes
mega-faunal extinctions
are people linked to their extinctinons? limited evidence to support this claim
- diseses
- chaning climates
- slow reproductive rates
developments:
- increased regionalization: change from scattered clovis to more condensed culture
- population growth
- increase in sedentism
- beginnings of plant domestications
-
temperate resources
many sources of food are available throughout the seasons
population increases:
- this pattern is marked by more bands, site, tools, environmental signs
- the consequencs:inc trade, creation of social groups, specializations
seasonal rounds
- people gathering near large food sources
aggregation sites
when people would split up for specific seasons, and then meet up at a specific places during other seasons
creation of places
= cultural phenonom
- driven by: territory mentality
- places
- social centers - cemetaries, monuments
late archaic
people which witnessed the development of more complex socities; 2 major achievements:
- formation of more complex socities
- domestication
the archaic cultres of n. america
marked by: - social reorganization - substience shifts
middle archaric
(4000 - 3000 BC)
middle archaic case studies
- constructed large mounds in the lower missippi valley
ex:
- watson brake, louisinia: the plaza; dated earlier than expected
- hedgepeth mounds, lousiana
- mounds at frenchmen's bend, lousiana
-
monuments
built to:
- proclaim power, riches
- attract people
- communal work
- send messages
povery point
- large site
-features: large mound, concentric ridges
- an aggregation site
- artifacts: povery point objects (suggest cooking methods, or the importance of feasting), lapidary insdustry (suggests importance of trade), ..
carrier mills - s. illionis
- middle archaic settlement
- at this site they discovered several large multiperiod sites
Gatecliff shelter (Monitor valley, Nevada)
- deep stratigraphic sequence;
cheifdoms
between: communities and complex states
- termed "intermediate scale societies"
social inequalities
- can be : ascribed (somthing that is assigned rather than achieved, related to birth)
- inequalities are often political or economic
- evidence of : settlement hierarchies and settlement differentiation
labor division
- based on sex / age
-
political
- centralied, institutional political offices
mortuary practices
- ranking of individuals is eveident in mortuary practice
- burial rituals
- elab. of graves
- segregation
- grave goods
- investment
- symbolic markings