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29 Cards in this Set

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Bias introduced when a clinician is aware of the treatment type.
Observational bias
Bias introduced when screen detects a disease earlier and thus lengthens the time from dx to death
Lead-time bias
If you want to know if geographical location affects infant mortality rate but most variation in infant mortality is predicted by socioeconomic status, then socioeconomic status would be considered a what?
Confounding variable
The number of true positive divided by the total number of pts w/ diease.
Sensitivity.
Sensitive tests have low false negatives and are thus used to rule _____ a disease.
Out
PPD reactivity is used as a screening test b.c most ppl w/ TB (except those who are anergic) will have a + PPD. So is it highly sensitive or highly specific?
sensitive
Do chronic diseases have higher incidence or prevalence?
Higher prevalence
Epidemics such as influenze have higher incidence or prevalance?
Higher incidence
Cross-section studies give you incidence or prevalence?
Prevalence
Cohort studies can measure incidence or prevalence?
both
Case control studies measure incience or prevalence?
Neither
A test that consistently gives identical results but the results are wrong is what?
High reliability, low validity
Difference between a cohort study and a case-control study
Cohort studies can be used to calculate relative risk, incidence, and/or odds ration. Case control studies can be used to calculate odds ratio (ie case control studies cannot be used to calculare RR!)
(incidence rate of a disease in exposed ppl) - (incidence rate of a disease in non-exposed ppl)
Attributable risk
(The incidence rate of a disease in a population exposed to a particular factor) / (the incidence rate of those not exposed)
relative risk
The likelihood of a disease among ppl exposed to a risk factor compared to those who have not been exposed to the risk factor
Odds ratio
1 / [ (rate in untreated group) - (rate in untreated group) ]
Number needed to treat
In which pts do you initiate screen for colon cancer early?
Pts w/ IBD, FAP, HNPCC, and those who have first-degree relatives w/ colon cancer or w/ adenomatous polyps
The most common cancer in men; the most common cancer killer in men.
prostate and lung
Percentage of cases w/in 1 SD of the mean? w/in 2 SDs? 3?
68%, 95.4%, and 99.7%
Number of live births per 1000 population in one year
Birth rate
Number of live births per 1000 females (age 15-44) in one year
fertility rate
Number of deaths per 1000 ppl in population in one year
Mortality rate
Number of death from birth to 28 days per 1000 live births in one year
Neonatal mortality rate
Number of deaths from 28 days to 1 year per 1000 live births in one year
Postnatal mortality rate
Number of deaths from birth to 1 year per 1000 live births in one year (ie neonatal mortality rate + postnatal mortality rate)
Infant mortality rate
Number of deaths from 20 weeks gestation to birth per 1000 total births in one year
Fetal mortality rate
Number of deaths from 20 weeks gestation to one month of life per 1000 total births in one year
Perinatal mortality rate
Number of deaths during pregnancy to 90 days postpartum per !100,000! live births in one year
Maternal mortality rate