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44 Cards in this Set

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the suspensory ligament of the ovaries...

connects?
contains?
notable for?
connects - ovaries to lateral pelvic walls

contains - ovarian vessels

notable for - in ovariectomy, ureter is at risk during ligation of ovarian vessels
the cardinal ligament...

connects?
contains?
notable for?
connects - cervice to side of pelvis

contains - uterine vessels

notable for - in hysterctomy, ureters at risk of injury during ligation of uterine vessels
the round ligament of the uterus...

connects?
contains?
notable for?
connects - uterine fundus to labia majora

contains - 0 (0 is round)

notable for - travels through the ROUND inguinal canal; derivative of gubernaculum
the broad ligament...

connects?
contains?
notable for?
connects - uterus, fallopian tubes, & ovaries to pelvic side wall

contains - ovaries, fallopian tubes, round ligaments of uterus

notable for - mesosalpinx, mesometrium, & mesovarium are the components
the ligament of the ovary...

connects?
contains?
notable for?
connects - ovary to the lateral Uterus

contains - --

notable for - --
pathway of sperm during ejaculation?
SEVE(N) UP

seminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, urethra, penis
autonomic innervation of...

erection?
emission?
ejaculation?
erection - Para Symp; pelvic nerve
emission - Symp; hypogastric nerve
ejaculation - visceral & somatic nerves (pudendal nerve)

Point & Shoot
NO --> cGMP relaxes smooth mm, vasodilates, is proerectile
NE --> increased Ca --> vasoconstricts --> antierectile
sildenafil and vardenafil?
inhibit cGMP breakdown
pro-erectile
what inhibits FSH in males? made by?
inhibin
sertoli cells
what do sertoli cells synthesize?
inhibin (inhibit FSH)
androgen binding protein (ABP) --> maintains level of testosterone high locally
what forms the blood-testi barrier?
tight junctions between adjacent sertoli cells; they line the seminiferous tubules
what produces antimullerian hormone?
sertoli cells
in male gonad, what happens with increased temperature (varicocele, cryptorchidism)?
Sertoli cells...
decreased sperm production
decreased inhibin

Leydig cells...
testosterone production unaffected
what cell produces testosterone in the male? female?
Male - Leydig cell
-they are interstitial; outside the blood-testis-barrier

Female - Theca cell
how long does full development in spermatogenesis take?
2 months
what happens in spermatogenesis in meiosis I, meiosis II?
meiosis I - 46 sister chromatids --> 23 sister chromatids
meiosis II - 23 sister chromatids --> 23 single chromatids
what is a genetic cause of impaired sperm tail motility?
Cilliary dyskinesia (Kartagener's syndrome)
-also see recurrent resp infections
How is the HPaxis regulated for sex hormones in males at...

Hypothalamus?
Anterior Pituitary?
End organ?
Hypothalamus -- releases GnRH; inhibited by Testosterone (NOT inhibin)

Anterior Pituitary - stimulated by GnRH; secretes FSH & LH; inhibited by Testosterone AND inhibin

End organ:
-Sertoli cells - stimulated by FSH; secrete ABP & inhibin; support spermatocytes
-Leydig cells - secrete testosterone
what is the relative potency of the various androgens?
DHT > testosterone > androstenedione
how is DHT formed? what inhibits this?
conversion of testosterone to DHT by 5-alpha-reductase

inhibited by finasteride
what effects does testosterone provide in...

embryologic development?
pubertal changes?
adult life?
embryologic development - development of internal male genitalia (except prostate)

pubertal changes - growth spurt, deepening voice, closure of epiphyseal plates (by conversion to estrogen)

adult life - libido
what effect does DHT have?
early - development of external male genetalia AND prostate

late - prostate growth, balding, sebacesou gland activity
how is estrogen formed in males? where?
conversion of testosterone AND androstenedione to estrogen by enzyme AROMATASE

occurs in ADIPOSE tissue and SERTOLI cells
what does exogenous testosterone do to males?
inhibit HPG axis, decrease intratesticular testosterone -->

decrease testicular size
azoospermia
what is androstenedione? where from?
low potency androgen
from adrenals (AnDrostenedion from ADrenals)
relative potency of the various estrogens? what is the source of each?
estradiol > estrone > estriol

estradiol - ovary
estone - aromatization
estriol - placenta
what is the effect of estrogen on...

development?
female reproductive organs?
other hormones?
proteins?
development - genitalia, breast, female fat distribution

reproductive organs - growth of follicle, endometrial proliferation, myometrial excitability

hormones - upregulate receptors for estrogen, LH, progesterone; inhibit FSH & LH, then LH surge; stimulate prolactin, but BLOCK action at the breast

proteins - incraase transport proteins, SHBG; increase HDL, decrease LDL
what is estrogen's effect on prolactin?
stimulates prolactin secretion but blocks its effect at the breast
how is estrogen produced by the ovary?
GnRH stimulates both LH & FSH secretion;

LH stimulates theca cells to convert cholesterol to androstenedione (via desmolase)

FSH stimulates Granulosa cells to convert androstenedion to estrogen (estradiol) via aromatase
what is the effect of progesterone on...

endometrium?
pregnancy?
myometrium?
cervix?
body temperature?
other hormones?
endometrium - stimulates glandular secretions & spiral artery development

pregnancy - maintains pregnancy; prevents contractions via promoting uterine smooth mm contraciton

myometrium - decreased excitability

cervix - production of thick mucus, inhibit sperm entry

body temperature - increase

other hormones - decrease estrogen receptor expressivity; inhibit LH & FSH
what are the two phases of the menstrual cycle? what do they correspond to histologically? blood hormones?
Follicular phase (proliferative)
-maturing graafian follicle
-endometrium is growing
-basal levels of LH/FSH
-estrogen slowly rising
-surge at the end

OVULATION SEPARATES THE TWO

Luteal phase (secretory)
-endometrium is thickened
-corpus luteum effects
-if no implantation endometrium begins to shed
-Progesterone rises (corpus luteum); estrogen to a lesser degree
-FSH & LH low
what tissue produces progesterone?
corpus luteum, placenta, adrenal cortex, testes
which menstrual phase varies in length? which is consistent?
follicular phase varies
luteal phase is constant 14 days (ovulation + 14 days = menstruation)

Oligomenorrhea/Polymenorrhea = 28 days +/- 7 (21/35)
when does menstruation occur?
at the end of the luteal phase (ovulation + 14 days)
this marks the transition to the follicular phase
hormonal mileu leading to ovulation?
increased estrogen increases GnRH receptors on anterior pituitary
estrogen surge stimulates LH release, causing ovulation (rupture of follicle)

temperature increases because of progesterone
meiosis I and meiosis II in oogenesis?
Meiosis I (23 sister chromatids) is arrested in PROPHASE for years, until ovlulation

Meiosis II (23 single chromatids) is arrested in metaphase until fertilization (until the egg MET a sperm)
where and when does fertilization occur?
in the upper end of fallopian tube (ampulla)
within 1 day after ovulation
when does implantation occur? how and when can this be detected?
implantation usually occurs 6 days after fertilization
hCG is detectable
-blood 1 week after conception
-urine 2 weeks after conception
hormonal mileu of lactation?
decrease in progesterone after labor induces lactation

suckling is required for maintenance, stimulates nerves to release oxytocin & prolactin

prolactin induces & maintains lactation; decreases reproductive function

oxytocin helps with milk letdown, may be involved with uterine contractions
source of progesterone during pregnancy?
1st trimester - corpus luteum

2nd & 3rd trimesters - placenta syntehsizes its own estriol & progesterone; corpus luteum degenerats
what maintains the corpus luteum for the first trimester? what produces it?
hCG; produced by syncytiotrophoblast of placenta
average age of menopause? best test to confirm?
51 years; preceded by 4-5 years abnormal cycles

very increased FSH best to confirm menopause
hormonal changes w/menopause?
decreased estrogen
very increased FSH
increased LH
increased GnRH
what causes menopause?
decreased estrogen production due to age-linked decline in NUMBER OF OVARIAN follicles