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139 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Actinic (solar keratosis)
Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

(TX = 5-FU)
Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
Cushing's ulcer (incr ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon
Skip lesions (Crohn's disease)
Aneurysm, dissecting
Hypertension
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta
Atherosclerosis
Aortic aneurysm, ascending
Marfan's syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration), 3⁰ syphilis
Atrophy of the mammillary bodies
Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)
Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)
Sickle cell anemia (HbS)

Nb. susceptible to encapsulated bugs
Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer
H. pylori
Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)
Neisseria meningitidis
Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)
Group B streptococcus, E. coli, Listeria (newborns); S. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)
Benign melanocytic nevus
Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)
Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency
Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand's factor)
Brain tumor (adults)
Supratentorial: mets > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma

Nb. "MGM Studios" - mnemonic
Brain tumor (kids)
Infratentorial: Astrocytoma, medulloblastoma (cerebellum), ependymoma, or

supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
Breast cancer
Infiltrating (invasive) ductal carcinoma (in the United States, 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)
Breast mass
1. Fibrocystic change
2. Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
Breast tumor (benign)
Fibroadenoma
Cardiac 1⁰ tumor (kids)
Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis
Cardiac manifestation of lupus
Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)
Cardiac tumor (adults)
1. Metastasis
2. 1⁰ myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")
Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
Arnold-Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomelia)

Nb. Type 1 is mostly asymptomatic; Type 2 has these Sx.
Chronic arrhythmia
Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)
Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
Bacteremia/pneumonia in IV drug user
S. aureus
Microbe in debilitated, hospitalized pneumonia patients
Klebsiella
Cardiomyopathy
Dilated cardiomyopathy (40% are familial)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
DES exposure in utero
Compression fracture
Osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension
21-hydroxylase deficiency
Congenital cardiac anomaly
VSD
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
Constrictive pericarditis
Tuberculosis (developing world); systemic lupus erythematosus (developed world)
Coronary artery involved in thrombosis
LAD > RCA > LCA
Cretinism
Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism
Cushing's syndrome
1. Corticosteroid therapy
2. Excess ACTH secretion by pituitary (aka "Cushing's disease")
3. Small cell lung carcinoma
Cyanosis (early; less common)
Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

Nb. these all start with "T"
Cyanosis (late; more common)
VSD, ASD, PDA

Nb. these will cause Eisenmeiger's syndrome
Death in CML
Blast crisis
Death in SLE
Lupus nephropathy

Nb. has anti-dsDNA Ab
Dementia
1. Alzheimer's disease
2. Multiple infarcts
Demyelinating disease in young women
Multiple sclerosis
DIC
gram-negative Sepsis, Trauma, Obstetric complications, Pancreatitis, Malignancy (cancer), Nephrotic syndrome, Transfusions

Nb. "STOP Making New Thrombi" = mnemonic
Dietary deficit
Iron
Diverticulum in pharynx
Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)
Ejection click
Aortic/pulmonic stenosis
Esophageal cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (U.S.)
Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)
S. aureus, B. cereus
Glomerulonephritis (adults)
Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
Gynecologic malignancy
Endometrial carcinoma (most common in U.S.); cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)
Heart murmur, congenital
MItral valve prolapse
Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis
MItral (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse), aortic (2nd affected in rheumatic fever)
Helminth infection (U.S.)
1. Enterobius vermicularis
2. Ascaris lumbricoides
Hematoma - epidural
Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)
Hematoma - subdural
Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)
Most common gene involved in cancer
P53 (tumor suppressor)
Hemochromatosis
Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes," and incr risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C)
Hereditary bleeding disorder
von Willebrand's disease
Hereditary harmless jaundice
Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
HLA-B27
Psoriatic arthritis (psoriasis), Ankylosing spondylitis, IBD (ulcerative colitis), Reiter's syndrome

Nb. "PAIR" - mnemonic
HLA-DR3 or -DR4
Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
Holosystolic murmur
VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis
Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
Hypertension, 2⁰
Renal disease
Hypoparathyroidism
Accidental excision during thyroidectomy
Hypopituitarism
Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)
Infection 2⁰ to blood transfusion
Hepatitis C
Infections in chronic granulomatous disease
Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase positive)
Kidney stones
1. Calcium = radiopaque
2. Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-positive organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)
3. Uric acid = radiolucent
Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L --> R becomes R --> L)
Eisenmeiger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)
Liver disease
Alcoholic cirrhosis
Lysosomal storage disease
Gaucher's disease
Male cancer
Prostatic carcinoma

TX = Flutamide (AR-antag.)
Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Malignant skin tumor
Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
Mental retardation
1. Fetal alcohol syndrome
2. Down syndrome
3. Fragile X syndrome

Nb. this is all-cause prevalence; 2 and 3 are top genetic causes.
Metastases to bone
Prostate, Thyroid, Testes, Breast, Lung, Kidney

"PTT Barnum Loves Kides" = mnemonic
Metastases to brain
Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
Metastases to liver
Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and lung carcinomas
Mitochondrial inheritance
Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only
Mitral valve stenosis
Rheumatic heart disease
Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease
ALS
Myocarditis
Coxsackie B, Echovirus
Neoplasm (kids)
1. ALL
2. Cerebellar medulloblastoma
Nephrotic syndrome (adults)
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Nephrotic syndrome (kids)
Minimal change disease (associated with infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)
Neuron migration failure
Kallmann syndrome
Nosocomial pneumonia
Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Obstruction of male urinary tract
BPH
Opening snap
Mitral stenosis
Opportunistic infection in AIDS
Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia
Osteomyelitis
S. aureus
Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease
Salmonella
Osteomyelitis with IV drug use
Pseudomonas, S. aureus
Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer
Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)
Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)
Serous cystadenoma
Ovarian tumor (malignant)
Serous cystadenocarcinoma
Pancreatitis (acute)
Gallstones, alcohol
Pancreatitis (chronic)
Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML
ALL: child, CLL: adult >60, AML: adult ~60, CML: adult 30-60
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22)(bcr-abl)
CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)
Pituitary tumor
1. Prolactinoma
2. Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
Primary amenorrhea
Turner syndrome (45XO)
Primary bone tumor (adults)
Multiple myeloma
Primary hyperaldosteronism
Adenoma of adrenal cortex
Primary hyperparathyroidism
1. Adenomas
2. Hyperplasia
3. Carcinoma
Primary liver cancer
Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α-1 antitrypsin)
Pulmonary hypertension
COPD
Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities
Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
Renal tumor
Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and adult polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)
Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause
Cor pulmonale
S3 (protodiastolic gallop)
incr ventricular filling (L --> R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])
S4 (presystolic gallop)
Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
Secondary hyperparathyroidism
Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
Sexually transmitted disease
Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)
SIADH
Small cell carcinoma of the lung
Site of diverticula
Sigmoid colon
Sites of atherosclerosis
Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal >carotid
Stomach cancer
Adenocarcinoma
Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
t(14;18)
Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
t(8;14)
Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(9;22)
Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)
Temporal arteritis
Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of opthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica
Testicular tumor
Seminoma
Thyroid cancer
Papillary carcinoma
Tumor in women
Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)
Tumor of infancy
Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)
Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)
Neuroblastoma (malignant)
Type of Hodgkin's
Diffuse large cell
UTI
E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)
Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe
HSV-1
Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)
Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)
t(11;22)
Ewing's sarcoma
Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Orphan Annie nuclei, psammoma bodies, nuclear grooves