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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the clinical symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy?
increased freq. of urination
nocturia
difficulty starting and stopping the stream of urine
dysuria
What are the useful tumor markers for frostatic adenocarcinoma?
prostatic acid phosphatase
prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
What is the most common precursor of choriocarcinoma?
hydatidiform mole
What levels are high in a woman w/ a hydatidiform mole?
beta-hCG
What is the genotype of a complete mole?
46, XX
completely paternal in origin
Which may contain fetal parts?
Complete mole or Partial mole?
partial mole
What is the triad of preeclampsia?
HTN, proteinurea, edema
(eclampsia = preeclampsia + seizures)
What are the complications of pregnancy?
arbrupto placentae
placenta accreta
placenta previa
ectopic pregnancy
endometrosis
non-neoplastic endometrial glands/stroma in abnormal locations outside the uterus
adenomyosis
endometrosis within the myometrium
endometrial hyperplasia
abnormal endometrial gland proliferation
usually caused by excess estrogen stimulation
What does endometiral hyperplasia increase the risk of?
endometrial carcinoma
What is the most common gynecologic malignancy?
endometrial carcinoma
What are the risk factors for endometrial carcinoma?
prolonged estrogen use, obesity, diabetes, HTN
What is the most common tumor of all females?
leiomyoma
Why do leiomyomas increase in size with pregnancy and decrease in size with menopause?
leiomyomas are estrogen sensitive
Can leiomyomas progress leiomyocarcomas?
no
Do leiomyosarcomas arise from leiomyomas?
no
polycystic ovarin syndrome
(aka Stein-Leventhal syndrome)
may be caused by excess excretion of LH
characterized by amenorrhea, infertility, obesity, hirsutism
What are the 4 types of ovarian cysts?
follicular
corpus luteum
Theca-lutein
"Chocolate"
follicular cysts
distention of unruptured graafian follicle
corpus luteum cyst
hemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum
Theca-lutein cyst
due to gonadotropin stimulation
associtated w/ choriocarcinoma and moles
"Chocolate" cyst
blood-containing cysts from ovarian endometriosis
varies w/ menstural cycle
dysgerminoma
malignant germ cell tumor
(analogus to male seminoma)
yolk sac tumor
produces alpha-fetoprotein
choriocarcinoma
increases hCG
teratoma
90% of all germ cell tumors of the ovary
contains all 3 germ layers
Which type of teratoma is malignant?
immature teratoma
Which type of teratoma is benign?
mature teratoma
What are the 3 forms of teratomas?
immature
mature
monodermal
Which form of teratoma contains only a single tissue element?
monodermal teratoma
most common is struma ovarii (entirely thyroid tissue)
granulosa cell tumor
secretes estrogen -> precocious puberty in kids
can cause endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma in adults
Call-Exner bodies
fibroadenoma
the most common tumor of women <25 years old
benign tumor of the breast
small, mobile, firm mass w/ sharp edges
increases in size and tenderness w/ pregnancy
not a precursor to breast cancer
cystosarcoma phyllodes
benign tumor of the breast
large, bulky mass of connective tissue and cysts
may have "leaf-like" projections
intraductal papilloma
benign tumor of the breast
tumor of lactiferous ducts
presents w/ nipple discharge
What are the risk factors for developing breast cancer?
gender
age
early 1st menarche (<12 years old)
delayed 1st pregnancy (>30 years old)
late menopause (>50 years old)
family history of 1st degree relative w/ breast cancer at young age
Is the risk of developing breast cancer increased by fibroadenoma?
no
Is the risk of developing breast cancer increased by nonhyperplastic cysts?
no