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38 Cards in this Set

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COPD
obstruction of air flow -> air trapping in lungs
low FEV1/FVC ratio (hallmark)
chronic bronchitis
"blue bloater"
productive cough for >3 months in 2 or more years
hypertrophy of mucus-secreating glands in the bronchioles
leading cause is smoking
emphysema
"pink puffer"
destruction of alveolar walls -> enlargement of airspaces and decreased recoil
caused by smoking and alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency -> increased elastase activity
asthma
bronchial hyperresopnsiveness -> reversible bronchoconstriction
bronchiectasis
chronic necrotizing infection of bronchi -> dilated airways, purulent sputum, recurrent infections, hemoptysis
Which COPD disease is associated w/ Curschmann's spirals?
asthma
Which COPD disease is associated w/ Kartagener's syndrome?
bronchiectasis
Which COPD disease is associated w/ alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency?
emphysema
Which COPD disease is associated w/ cystic fibrosis?
bronchiectasis
restrictive lung disease
restricted lung expansion -> decreased lung volumes (VC and TLC)
FEV1/FVC > 80%
abestosis
diffuse pulmonary interstitial fibrosis caused by inhaled asbestos fibers
feruginous bodies, ivory-white pleural plaques
Abestosis increases the risk of what?
pleural mesothelioma, bronchogenic carcinoma
Asbestosis and smoking greatly increase the risk of what type of cancer?
bronchogenic cancer
Asbestosis is typically seen in what population?
shipbuilders, plumbers
neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
surfactant deficiency -> increased surface tension -> alveolar collapse
What is the lectin:spingomyelin ratio in the amniotic fluid in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome?
<1.5
What is the treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome?
maternal steroids before birth, artificial surfactant for infant
Kartagener's syndrome
dynein arm defect -> immotile cilia
What disease is Kartagener's syndrome associated with?
situs inversus
What types of bronchogenic carcinomas arise centrally?
squamous cell carcinoma
small cell carcinoma
What types of bronchogenic carcinomas arise peripherally?
adenocarcinoma
bronchioalveolar carcinoma
large cell carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma of the lung may lead to what syndrome?
Lambert-Eaton syndrome
What are the complications of lung cancer?
(SPHERE)
Superior vena cava syndrome
Pancoast's tumor
Horner's syndrome
Endocrine (paraneoplastic)
Recurrent laryngeal symptoms (hoarseness)
Effusions (pleural or pericardial)
Pancoast's tumor
carcinoma that occurs in the apex of lungs
What can Pancoast's tumor affect?
cervical sympathetic plexus -> Horner's syndrome
lobar pneumonia
most frequently caused by pneumococcus
intra-alveolar exudate -> consoldiation
bronchopneumonia
most frequently S. aureus, H. flu, Klebsiella, S. pyobenes
acute inflammatory infiltrates from bronchioles into adjacent alveoli
patchy distribution involving >= 1 lobes
interstitial (atypical) pneumonia
most frequently caused by viruses (RSV, adenoviruses), Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia
diffuse patchy inflammation localized to interstitial areas at alveolar walls
distribution involving >= 1 lobes
Which type of pneumonia involves intra-alveolar exudate?
lobar
Which type of pneumonia is most frequently caused by viruses?
interstitial
Which type of pneumonia is most frequently caused by Pneumococcus?
lobar
Which type of pneumonia is most frequently caused by S. aureus?
bronchopneumonia
Which type of pneumonia is most frequently caused by mycoplasma?
interstitial
Which type of pneumonia is most frequently caused by S. pyogenes?
bronchopneumonia
Which type of pneumonia is most frequently caused by H. flu?
bronchopneumonia
Which type of pneumonia is most frequently caused by Chlamydia?
interstitial
Which type of pneumonia is most frequently caused by Legionella?
interstitial
Which type of pneumonia is most frequently caused by Klebsiella?
bronchopneumonia