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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two extrinsic apoptotic pathways?
CD95 binds to Fas-ligand

Granzyme B and perforin from cytotoxic T cells
Bax is ____-apoptotic and Bcl-2 is ____-apoptotic
Bax = pro-apoptotic

Bcl-2 = anti-apoptotic
In what organ does fatty necrosis occur?
pancreas
in what organs does coagulative necrosis occur?
heart, liver and kidney
what are the two types and causes of gangrenous necrosis?
dry (ischemic) wet (bacteria)
What are the two main watershed areas, prone to hypoxia?
Splenic flexure, ACA/MCA
What tissue of the heart is prone to hypoxia?
subendocardial tissue
Which two parts of the nephron are most prone to hypoxia?
Proximal tubule and thick ascending limb
What three organs are likely to see red infarcts?
liver, lungs intestines
Which proteins are responsible for the tight binding of PMNs on the endothelium?
ICAM-1 (vascular) and LFA-1 (leukocyte)
Which collagen replaces which collagen in the remodeling phase of wound healing?
Type I replaces Type III (Type Three = Temporary)
Which cytokine released by macrophages induces and maintains granuloma formation?
TNF-alpha
What causes increased ESR?
inflammation, infection, cancer, preggo, SLE
what are the three main causes of decreased ESR?
Sickle cell, polycythemia, CHF
What causes apple-green birefringence under congo red stain?
Beta-pleated sheet deposition --> amyloidosis
What are the three reversible "plasias"?
Hyperplasia, Metaplasia and Dysplasia
Does stage or grade have more prognostic value for cancer?
stage (size, nodal involvement/mets)
Which 3 cytokines mediate cachexia?
TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6
What 2 neoplasms are a/w Down syndrome?
ALL, AML
What disease condition is associated with Astrocytoma, angiomyolipoma and cardiac rhabdomyoma?
Tuberous sclerosis
What neoplasm is associated with Actinic keratosis?
Squamous cell ca of skin
Which neoplasm is a/w Barret's esophagus?
Esophageal adenocarcinoma
Which neoplasm is a/w Plummer-Vinson syndrome?
Squamous cell ca of esophagus
Which neoplasm is a/w autoimmune diseases?
Lymphomas
What disease condition is a/w visceral malignancy?
Acanthosis nigricans
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w CML?
oncogene - abl
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w Burkitt's lymphoma?
oncogene - c-myc
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w follicular and undifferentiated lymphomas?
oncogene - bcl-2
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w breast AND ovarian ca?
oncogene - erb-B2

tumor suppressor - BRCA1
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w colon cancer?
oncogene - ras

tumor suppressor - APC, DCC
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w lung tumor?
oncogene - L-myc
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w neuroblastoma?
oncogene - N-myc
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w MEN II?
oncogene - ret
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w gastrointestinal stromal tumor?
oncogene - c-kit
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w most human cancers?
tumor suppressor - p53
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w melanoma?
tumor suppressor - p16
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w Wilm's tumor?
tumor suppressor - WT1
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w neurofibomatosis?
tumor suppressors - NF1 and NF2
Which oncogene/tumor suppressor is a/w pancreatic cancer?
tumor suppressor - DPC
Which nonspecific antigen is produced by 70% of colorectal and pancreatic cancers?
CEA
Which tumor marker is classic of hepatocellular carcinomas?
alpha-fetoprotein
Which tumor marker is indicative of ovarian and malignant epithelial tumors?
CA-125
Which tumor marker is specific to metastases to the bone, obstructive biliary disease and Paget's?
Alkaline phosphatase
Which tumor marker is specific to Hairy cell leukemia?
TRAP
Which tumor marker is indicative of pnacreatic adenocarcinoma?
CA-19-9
Which tumor marker is indicative of thyroid medullary carcinoma?
calcitonin
What organ is affected by carcinogenic effects of aniline dyes?
bladder
From which three organs is a brain met most likely?
lung > breast > kidney
From which three organs is a liver met most likely?
colon > stomach > pancreas
Which organ is likely to receive mets from breast/prostate > lung > thyroid/testes
bone