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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Adverse effects of hydrochorothiazide?
hypokalemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, lassitude, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia
Adverse effects of loop diuretics?
K wasting, met alkalosis, hypotension, ototoxicity
Adverse effects of clonidine? (class?)
dry mouth, sedation, rebound HTN (sympathoplegic)
adverse effect of methyldopa? (class?)
sedation, positive coomb's test (sympathoplegic)
adverse effects of hexamethonium? (class?)
orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, constipation, sexual dysfxn (sympathoplegic)
adverse effects of reserpine? (class?)
sedation, depression, nasal stuffiness, diarrhea (sympathoplegic)
adverse effect of guanethidine? (class?)
orthostatic and exercise hypotension, sexual dysfxn, diarrhea (sympathoplegic)
adverse effect of prazosin? (class)
1st dose orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, HA
adverse effects beta blockers?
impotence, asthma, CV (bradycardia, CHF, AV block), CNS (sedation, sleep alterations)
adverse effects of hydralazine? (class?)
nausea, HA, lupus-like syndrome, reflex tachycardia, angina, salt retention (vasodilator)
what do you give w/ hydralizine and minoxidil to prevent reflex tachydardia?`
beta blockers
adverse effects of minoxidil? (class?)
hypertrichosis, pericardial effusion, reflex tachycardia, angina, salt retention (vasodilator)
adverse effects nifedipine/verapamil?
dizziness, flishing, constipation (verapamil), nausea
adverse effects of nitroprusside?
cyanide toxicity (releases CN)
adverse effects of captopril?
hyperkalemia, Cough, Angioedema, Proteinuria, Taste changes, hypOtension, Pregnancy proglems (fetal renal damage), Rash, Increased renin, Lower angiotensin II
adverse effects of losartan?
fetal renal toxicity, hyperkalemia
MOA of hydralazine?
increased cGMP causes sm musc relaxation. Vasodilates arterioles > veins; afterload reduction
Use of hydralazine?
severe HTN, CHF
What are nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem?
MOA of CCBs?
block voltage dependet L-type Ca channels of cardiac and sm musc….reduces contractility
Which CCB has the greatest effect on sm muscle? Cardiac muscle?
nifedipine (sm musc); verapamil (heart)
MOA of nitroglycerin and isosorbide dinitrate?
release NO in sm muscle causing increased cGMP. Dilates veins >> arteries. Decreases preload
What is Monday Disease?
development of tolerance to nitroglycerin during the week and loss of tolerance over the weekend resulting in tachycardia, dizziness and HA
MOA of digitalis?
inhibits Na/K ATPase causing increased intracellular Na. Na/Ca antiport cannot function well so there is an increased intracellular Ca…positive inotropy
Toxicity of digitalis?
N/V, diarrhea, blurry yellow vision (van gogh). Arrhythmia
Effect of hypokalemia on dig toxicity?
potentiates effects
effect of quinidine on dig toxicity?
decrases dig clearance; dispalces dig from tissue binding sites
Antidote to digoxin?
slowly normalize K, lidocaine, cardiac pacer, anti-dig Fab fragments
What are the Class IA antiarrhythmics?
Quinidine Amiodarone, Procainamide Disopyramide (queen amy proclaims diso's pyramid)
MOA for Class I antiarrhythmics?
Na channel blockers
Effects of Class I antiarrhytmics?
slows/blocks conduction, decreased slope of phase 4 depol, increased threshold for firing in pacemakers
Class IA antiarrhytmics for atria, ventricles or both?
Effects of Class IA antiarrhytmics?
increasd AP duration, increased effective refractory period, increased QT interval
Quinidine toxicity?
cinchonism (HA, tinnitus, thrombocytopenia, TDP)
Procainamide toxicity?
reversible SLE-like syndrome
What are the class IB antiarrhythmics?
lidocaine, mexiletine, tocainide
Effects of Class IB antiarrhythmics?
decreased AP duration
Indications of class IB antiarhytmics?
acute ventricular arrhytmia and digitalis induced arrhytmia
Toxicity of class IB antiarrhythmics?
local anesthetic. CNS stimulation/depression. CV depression
What are the class IC antiarrhythmics?
Flecainide, encainide, propafenone
Effect of IC antiarrhythmics on AP duration?
Indications of class IC antiarrhythmics?
V-tachs that progress to VF and intractable SVT. Usually only last resort in refractory tachyarrhythmias
Class IC antiarrhythmic toxicity?
proarrhythmic post MI. (contraindicated)
MOA of Class II antiarrhytmics?
beta blockers (decreased cAMP, decreased Ca currents) decreased slope of phase 4, increased PR
What is the shortest acting Class II antiarrhythmic?
MOA of class III antiarrhythmics?
K channel blockers
Effect of class III antiarrhythmics?
increasd AP duration, increased effective refractory period, increased QT interval (like class IA)
What are the class III antiarrhytmics?
sotalol, ibutilide, bretylium, amiodarone
Sotalol toxicity?
TDP, excessive beta blocking
Ibutilide toxicity?
TDP, excessive beta blocking
Amiodarone toxicity?
check PFTs, LFTs, TFTs. pulmonary fibrosis, corneal deposits, hepatotoxicity, skin deposits (photodermatitis), neurologic effects, constipation, CV (bradycardia, heart block, CHF), hyper/hypothyroidism
What are the class IV antiarrhythmics?
verapamil, diltiazem
MOA of class IV antiarrhytmics?
effects of class IV antiarrhythmics?
primarily on AV nodal cells. Decreased conduciton velocity, increased effective refractory period, increased PR.
Primary use of class IV antiarrhytmics?
prevention of nodal arrhythmias (SVT)
Class IV antiarrhytmic toxicity?
constipation, flushing, edema CV (CHG, AV block, sinus node deprresion) TDP
What do you use adenosine for (arrhythmia)?
diagnosis/abolishment of AV nodal arrhythmias
What do you use K for (arrhythmia)?
depresses ectopic pacemakers, especially in digoxin toxicity
What do you use Mg for (arrhythmia)?
TDP and digoxin toxicity