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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
heart sound which is the mitral and tricuspid valve closure
heart sound which is the aortic and pulmonary valve closure
heart sound which denotes the end of rapid ventricular filling
heart sound that denotes high atrial pressure and stiff ventricle
S3 is associated with what pathology
dilated CHF
heart sound which is associated with the "atrial kick" and is heard with a hypertophic ventricle
what does S2 splitting mean and how does respiration influence this
aortic valve closes before pulmonic (inspiration increases this difference)
cardiac output =
sv x hr
mean arterial pressure =
in terms of diastolic and systolic pressure MAP =
2/3 diastolic pressure + 1/3 systolic pressure
how does preload and afterload affect SV
an increase in preload and decrease in afterload increase SV
how does an increased in intracellular calcium affect contractility
how does a decrease in extracellular sodium affect contractility
increases it
Phase 0 in the pacemeaker action potential represents what
upstroke in which voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open

remember the pacemaker action potential does not involve fast voltage gated na+ channels
how does a B1 blockade affect contractiligy
decreases and decreases SV
nitroglycerin affects preload how? why?
decreases preload because it is a venous dilator
how does hydralazine affect afterload and why
it is a vasodilitor so it decreases afterload
preload is affected how by exercise
increased slightly
acidosis affects contractility how
decreases contractility and SV (H+ displace Ca+ in blood causing hypercalcemia in the blood (not heart)) hypercalcemia causes hyperkalemia a decrease contractility
the palateau in a cardiac muscle action potential is Phas 2 and is due to
Ca+ influx
what is phase 1 in the mycardial action potential due to
it is the initial repolarization whic his due to inactivation of voltage-gated Na+ channels. also the voltage gated K+ begin to open
what is phase 3 in the myocardial action potential due to
rapid depolarization which involves massive K+ efflux due to opening of voltage-gated slow K+ channels and closure of voltae-gated Ca2+ channels.
what phase in a myocardial action potential = resting potential and how does that relate to K+ permeability
Phase 4 is the resting potential which and marked by high K+ permeability through the K+ channels
the aortic arch detects what change in BP and transmits back to the medulla via what nerve
detects a decrease in BP and transmits via the vagus
the carotid sinus sense what change in BP and transmit back to the medulla via what nerve
responds to an increase AND decrease in BP and transmits via the glossophyryngeal nerve back to the medulla
how does hypotension affect baroreptor firing
decrease in arterial pressure - decrease stretch - decrease in firing - increase in sympathetic firing - increase in HR, Contractiligy, and BP

important reaction to severe hemorrhage
the carotid body is what kind of receptor
carotid and aortic bodies resond to a decrease in PO2 (under 60mmHg) and an increase PCO2 and a decrease in the pH of blood
what is measured with a Swan-Ganz catheter?
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) which is a good approximation of left atrial pressure
what are the three local metabolites in the heart that determine autoregulation
what is the one local metabolite which determine autoregulation in the brain
CO2 (pH)
in the lungs - hypoxia causes what

in other organs hypoxia causes vasodilation)
Net filtration pressure Pnet (using the starling forces idea) =
(Pc-Pi) - (capillary oncotic pressure - interstitial oncotic pressure)
how might you diagnose coartation of the aorta
hypertension in the upper extremities and weak pulses in the lower extremeties

at least in adult type

in infantile type: aortic stenosis is proximal to insertion of ductus arteriosus.
a ductus arteriosus patency is maintained by what two factors
PGE synthesis
low O2 tension

Indomethacin (a prostagladin synthesis inhibitor) is used to close a PDA
the kind of arteriosclerosis which includes calcification of the arteries (especially radial and ulnar). its usuallly benigh "pipestem arteries"
the kind of arteriosclerosis which includes fibrous plaques and atheromas forming in the intima or arteries
pale infarcts occur in what kind of tissues
solid tissues w/ a single blood supply (brain, heart, kidney, spleen)

red infarcts occur in loose tissues w/ collaterals such as lungs, intestine, or following reperfusion.
two things you might observe on an ECG right after a MI
ST elevation (transmural infarct) or ST depression (endcardial infarct)

pathological Q waves (transmurel)
what protein might rise 4 hours after in MI and stay elevated fro 7-10 days afterward
what is a cardiac tamponade
fluid (e.g blood) accumulates in the pericardium and puts pressure on the heart decreasing diastolic filling. may lead to shock and death

seen after MI sometimes
what is Dressler's syndrome
an autoimmune phenomenon resulting in fibrinous pericarditis several weeks after a MI
the most common cardiomyopathy - can be caused by Alcohol abuse, Beriberi, Coxsackie B virus, Cocain, Chagas disease
dilated (congestive) cardiomyopathy)

leading to systolic dysfunction
a cardiomyopathy which often causes death in young athletes
hypertrophi cardiomyopathy

often asymmetric involving the intraventricular septum.
normal heart size
diastolic dysfunction
50% familial
what three things might help you to diagnose hypertrophic cardiomopathy in a young person
loud S4
apical impulses
systolic murmur
how would you treat hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
beta blocker
this kind of cardiomyopathy might be caused by amyloidosis, endocardial fibroelastosis etc..
restrictive/obliterative cardiomyopathy
holosystolic high pitched "blowing"murmer
mitral regurgitation
mitral regurgitation can be heard the loudest where?
crescendo-decrescendo systoli efection murmur following ejection click
Aortic stenosis

LV is greater than aortic presusre during systole. pulse is weak compared to heart sounds - pulsus parvus et tardus
the most frequent valvular sesion which causes a late systolic murmer with midsystolic click
mitral prolapse
The three types of drugs which are used to treat angina
nitrats (decrease preload)
Beta blockers (decrease afterload)
Calcium channel blockers