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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what's in the cartoid sheath and what are their relative locations
internal juglar vein (lateral), common carotid artery (medial), vagus nerve (posterior)
right coronary artery supplies…
SA, AV node, inferior portion of left ventricle via posterior desending artery (right dominant)
which artery supplies the nodes
right coronary artery
which artery supplies the inferior left ventricle
posterior descending (branch of right coronary in right dominant circulation)
Left anterior descending supplies…
anterior interventricular septum
disphagia can be caused by what cardiac problem
enlargment of left atrium (most posterior part of heart)
enlargment of the left atrium can cause…
SA node
RA. (maybe liver if inhale)
penetrating injury: superior to clavicle
apex of lung
penetrating injury: L ICS 2
penetrating injury: L ICS 4
penetrating injury: LUQ
stomach, transverse colon, jejunum. not descending colon cuz retro
penetrating injury: RUQ
liver, transverse colon, jejunum, ileum. not ascending colon b/c retro
penetrating injury: RLQ
jejunum, ileum
penetrating injury: LLQ
sigmoid colon, jejunum, ileum
penetrating injury: superior to pubic symphysis
full bladder
penetrating injury: L ICS 10 from behind
spleen, left kidney
penetrating injury: R ICS 12 from behind
liver, right kidney
adrenal cortex is from which gemrinal layer
andrenal medulla is from which germinal layer
ectoderm: neural crest
adrenal zones and what they produce
[outer] glomerulosa (aldosterone), fasciculata (cortisol), reticulata (androgens), medulla (NE, E)
Adrenal drainage
R: directly to IVC. L: adrenal => renal => IVC
Forgut derivatives and blood supply
stomach => proximal duodenum. + spleen, liver, pancreas. Celiac trunk
Midgut derivates and blood supply
proximal duodenum => poximal 2/3 transverse colon. SMA
Hindgut derivates and blood supply
distal 1/3 transverse colon to upper rectum. IMA
draw the major branches of the celiac trunk
vasculature and structures a/w portal hypertension
1) left gastric vein => esophogeal varices. 2) infeior rmesenteric vein => superficial rectal veins => internal hemorrhoids. 3) paraumbilical veins => (superficial epigastric veins) => caput medusae. 4) splenic vein => splenomegaly "gut, butt, caput"
inner musclular layer
circular. (except ureter)
ouer muscular layer
longitudinal. (except ureter)
submucosal plexus
secretion, absorption, blood flow. Meissner's plexus. Some parasympathetic cell bodies.
myenteric plexus
motility. Auerbach's. between inner/outer layers of muscle. Some parasymapethic cell bodies
Brunner's glands
duodenal submucosa. secrete alkaline mucous. hypertrophied in PUD.
Peyer's patch
uncapsulated lymphoid tissue in lamina prorpria/submucosa. covered by cuboidal enterocytes, but not goblet cells. M cells take up antigen. B cells=> lymph => blood => lamina propria: sec IgA (acquires secretory component)
pectate line: above/below for n/a/v/cancer
where hindgut meets ectoderm. ABOVE: internal hemorrhoids, visceral (no pain), IMA => superior rectal a, superior rectal v => IMV => IVC, adenocarcinoma. BELOW: external hemorrhoids, somatic (painful!), pudendal a => inf rectal a, inf rectal v => pudendal v => internal iliac => IVC, SCC
femoral triangle, what's in the sheath, where do hernias protrude?
N(AVEL). E= empty space = canal = hernia, protrude inf + lateral to pubic tubercle
abdomenal wall layers, inside to outside
peritoneum, trasversalis fascia, transversalis abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique
inferior epigastric vessels pass ______ to deep inguinal ring
inferior epigastric vessels pass ____ to the superficial inguinal ring
deep inguinal ring is formed by which layer
transversalis fascia
superficial inguinal ring is formed by which layer
external oblique muscle
external spermatic fascia is formed from what layer
external oblique fascia
cremaster fascia is formed from what layer
internal oblique fascia
indirect hernia
leaves the abdominal cavity lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels and enters the deep inguinal ring. uses persistent procesus vaginalis. can exit superficial inguinal ring and enter scrotum
direct hernia
leaves abd cavity medial to inferior epigastric vessels. does not traverse inguinal canal.
support, K+, repair, BBB. Marker = GFAP
GFAP stains for…
ependymal cels
line ventricles
irreg nuc, scant cytoplasm. damage => ameboid, phagocytic. MESODERMAL ORIGIN. poor nissel stain.
central myelin production. myelinate multiple axons. niss stain.
schwann cels
peripheral myelin production. myelinate 1 axon.
nissel stains for…
RER. poor in microglia
peripheral nerve layers
epineurium, perineurium (fascicles, Permeability barrier), endoneurium (invid "nerve fibers")
Meissner's corpuscle
light discriminatory touch of glabrous skin. small encapsulated.
Pacinian corpuscle
vibration, pressure. deep. large, encapsualted. (P=P… and V)
Merkel's corpuscle
light crude touch. cup-shaped. not encapsulated.
Bony labrynth is filled with…
perilymph (high in Na+ like ECF)
Membranous labrynth is filled with…
endolymph (high in K+ like ICF)
Bony labrythn is composed of…
cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals
Membranous labrynth is composed of…
cochlear duct, saccule + utricle, semicircular canals
Function of utricle+saccule and sensor
linear acceleartion. maculae
Function of semicricular canals and sensor
Angular acceleration. Ampullae
Old people lose what type of hearing first?
high frequency
Base of chochlea senses…
high frequency
Apex of chochlea senses…
low frequency
Blood tissue barriers
1) BBB 2) Blood-testes 3) maternal-fetal (placenta)
3 components of the BBB
1) endotheial cells w/ tight junctions 2) basement membrane 3) astrocyte foot processes. (glucose/aa: carrier mediated transport)
2 areas of the brain w/ no BBB
1) area postrema/CRT zone. 2) neurohypophysis (ADH, oxytocin)
Functions of hypothalamus and nuclei
TANHATS = Thirst (supraoptic nuc), Adenohypophysis control, Neurohypophysis control (supraoptic nuc/paraventricular nuc), Hunger (lateral nuc, ventromedial nuc), Autonomic (ant=para, post=symp), Temperature (ant = cool), Sex/emo (septal nuc)
Hypothalamus: supraoptic nuc
Hypoth: paraventricular nuc
Hypoth: lateral nuc
hunger. lesion => anorexia
Hypoth: ventromedial nuc
satiety. lesion => hyperphagia.
Hypoth: suprachiasmatic
circadian rhythms
Hypoth: anterior
cooling, parasympathetic
Hypoth: posterior
heating, sympathetic
motor nucleus
facial sensiation (V)
body sensation (dorsal columns, spinothalamic tract)
PD in terms of direct/indirect
dec stim of direct, dec inh of indirect
what's in the SFG
frontal eye field
front eye field lesion
can't look toward the contralateral side. eyes drift to ipsilateral side
Broca's area: motor speech area. left side
what's in the STG
Wernicke's area (associative auditory cortex), primary auditory cortex. left side.
what's in the precentral gyrus
primary motor cortex
what's in the postcentral gyrus
primary sensory cortex
what's in the superior parietal lobes
maps on the right.
frontal lobe functions
executive functions. lesion => lack of social judgement
Anterior cerebral artery
medial surface of brain. motor/sensory: leg
Middle cerebral artery
lateral surface of brain. 1) motor/sensory: trunk, arm, face. 2) speech: Broca, Wernicke
Posterior cerebral artery
thalamus, occipital lobe
Anterior communicating artery
mc site of circle of willis aneurysm => CN2 disturbance
Posterior communicating artery
aneurysm => CN3 palsy
Lateral striate artery
branch of MCA. internal capsule, caudate, putamen, GP
Anterior choroidal artery
branch of internal carotid (NOT part of circle of willis). feeds: posterior intercapsule, GP, LGN
generally, an anterior circle of willis block causes…
sensory/motor dysfunction, aphasia
generally, a posterior circle of willis block causes…
cranial nerve deficits (vertigo, visual deficits), coma, cerebellar deficits
generally, courses of verebral veins
cerebral veins => venous sinuses => transverse sinus => sigmoid sinus => internal juglar vein
CSF returns to ____ sinus through ______
superior sagiittal sinus, arachnoid granulations.
Ventricular system… order
Lateral ventricles == foramen of monro ==> 3rd ventricle == aqueduct of silvius ==> 4th ventricle ==foramen of magendie/luschka==> subarachnoid space
where is the choroidal plexus
lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricle, 4th ventricle. NOT in the cerebral aqueduct
how many spinal nerves, what's the breakdown?
31 flavors/spinal nerves. 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
Where does vertebral disk herniation usually occur
at what vertebral level does the spinal cord end
at what vertebral level does the subarachnoidspace end
at what vertebral level does one do an LP
what layers do you go through when you do an LP
skin, fascia, ligaments (supraspinous, interspinous, ligamentum flavum), epidural space, dura mater, subdural space, arachnoid, subarachnoid space (CSF). YOU DO NOT PIERCE THE PIA
what kind of sensiation does the dorsal column carry
light touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception
describe the pathway of the way dorsal column
sensory unit (pacinian/meissner corpuscle) + 1° sensory neuron (DRG) travels up dorsal column (fasciculus cuneatus/gracilis) => 2° sensory neuron (nucleus cuneatus/gracilis) DECUSSATE in medulla, medial lemnisucus to thalamus VPL => 1° sensory cortex