Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/212

Click to flip

212 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Baby vomits milk when fed and has a gastric air bubble.
What kind of fistula is present?
Blind esophagus with lower segment of esophagus attached to trachea.
20 yo dancer reports decreased plantar flexion and decreased sensation over the back of her thigh, calf, and lateral half of her foot. What spinal nerve is involved?
Tibial (L4 to S3)
Patient presents with decreased pain and temperature sensations over the lateral aspects of both arms. WHat is the lesion?
Syringomyelia
Penlight in patient's right eye produces bilateral pupillary constriction. When moved to the left eye, there is paradoxical bilateral pupillary dilation. What is the defect?
Atrophy of the left optic nerve
Patient describes decreased prick sensation on the lateral aspect of her leg and foot.
A deficit in what muscular action can also be expected?
Dorsiflexion and eversion of foot (common peroneal nerve)
Elderly woman presents with arthritis and tingling over the lateral digits of her right hand. What is the diagnosis?
Carpal tunnel syndrome - median nerve compression
Woman involved in a motor vehicle accident cannot turn her head to the left and has right shoulder drop. What structure is damaged?
Right CN XI (runs through jugular foramen with CN IX and X) innervating sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
Man presents with one wild, flailing arm. Where is the lesion?
Contralateral subthalamic nucleus (hemiballismus)
Pregnant woman in 3rd trimester has normal blood pressure when standing and sitting. When supine, blood pressure drops to 90/50. What is the diagnosis?
Compression of the IVC
Soccer player who was kicked in the leg suffered a damaged medial meniscus.
What else is likely to have been damaged?
Anterior Cruciate ligament (unhappy triad)
Gymnast dislocates her shoulder anteriorly.
What nerve is most likely to have been damaged?
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Patient with cortical lesion does not know that he has a disease. Where is the lesion?
Right parietal lobe
Child presents with cleft lip.
Which embryologic process failed?
Fusion of maxillary and medial nasal processes
Patient cannot protrude tongue toward left side and has a right-sided spastic paralysis.
Where is the lestion
Left medulla, CN XII
Teen falls while rollerbladin and hurts his elbow. He can't feel the
medial part of his palm.
Which nerve and what injury?
Ulnar nerve due to broken medial condyle
24 yo male develops testicular cancer.
Metastatic spread occurs by what route?
Para-aortic lymph nodes (recall descent of testes during development)
Field hockey player presents to the ER after falling on her arm during practice. XR shows midshaft break of the humerus. Which nerve and artery are most likely damaged?
Radial nerve and deep brachial artery, which run together
Patient cannot blink his right eye or seal his lips and has mild ptosis on the right side.
What is the diagnosis and which nerve is affected?
Bell's Palsy; CN VII
Patient complains of pain, numbness and a tingling sensation. On exam, she has wasting of the thenar eminence. What is the diagnosis, and what nerve is affected?
Carpal tunnel syndrome; median nerve.
Anisocytosis
Varying sizes
Poikilocytosis
Varying shapes
Reticulocyte
Baby erythrocyte
Granulocytes
Basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils
mononuclear cells
lymphocytes and monocytes
Basophil
Bilobate nucleus, densely basophilic, contains heparin, histamine and SRS-A
Mast cell
Involved in Type I hypersensitivity Cromolyn sodium prevents mast cell degranulation
Causes of eosinophilia
NAACP - Neoplastic, Asthma, Allergic processes, Collagen vascular diseases, Parasites
Neutrophils
Multi-lobed nucleus, azurophilic primary granules contain hydrolytic enzymes
Hypersegmented neutrophils seen in ?
B12 deficiency
Monocyte
Large kidney shaped nucleus, frosted glass cytoplasm. Differentiate into macrophages in tissues
Lymphocytes
small, round, densely staining nucleus.
B Lymphocyte
Humoral immune response. Arises from stem cell in bone marrow. B cells differentiate into plasma cells to produce antibodies
Plasma cell
Off-center nucleus, clock face chromatin. Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm
T Lymphocyte
Cellular immune response, matures in thymus.
Macrophage
Phagocytizes bacteria, cell debris. Macrophages differentiate from circulatingblood monocytes
Activated by y-interferon
Airway cells
Type I (97%)
Type II (3%) form the surfactant
A lecitihin, sphingomyelin ratio of >2.0 in amniotic fluid is indicative of fetal lung maturity
Microglia
CNS phagocytes. Mesodermal in origin. HIV infected microglia fuse to form multinucleated giant cells in the CNS
Oligodendroglia
Myelinate multiple CNS axons
Destroyed in multiple sclerosis
Schwann cells
Each schwann cell myelinates only 1 PNS axon. Promotes axonal regeneration. Acoustic neuroma is an example of a schwannoma.
Day 0
Fertilization by sperm, initiating embryogenesis
Within week 1
Implantation (as a blastocyst)
Within week 2
Bilaminar disk
Within week 3
Gastrulation, primitive streak, notochord, and neural plate begin to form
Weeks 3-8
Neural tube formed. Organogensis.
Extremely susceptible to teratogens
24 yo male develops testicular cancer.
Metastatic spread occurs by what route?
Para-aortic lymph nodes (recall descent of testes during development)
Field hockey player presents to the ER after falling on her arm during practice. XR shows midshaft break of the humerus. Which nerve and artery are most likely damaged?
Radial nerve and deep brachial artery, which run together
Patient cannot blink his right eye or seal his lips and has mild ptosis on the right side.
What is the diagnosis and which nerve is affected?
Bell's Palsy; CN VII
Patient complains of pain, numbness and a tingling sensation. On exam, she has wasting of the thenar eminence. What is the diagnosis, and what nerve is affected?
Carpal tunnel syndrome; median nerve.
Anisocytosis
Varying sizes
Poikilocytosis
Varying shapes
Reticulocyte
Baby erythrocyte
Granulocytes
Basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils
mononuclear cells
lymphocytes and monocytes
Basophil
Bilobate nucleus, densely basophilic, contains heparin, histamine and SRS-A
Mast cell
Involved in Type I hypersensitivity Cromolyn sodium prevents mast cell degranulation
Causes of eosinophilia
NAACP - Neoplastic, Asthma, Allergic processes, Collagen vascular diseases, Parasites
Neutrophils
Multi-lobed nucleus, azurophilic primary granules contain hydrolytic enzymes
Hypersegmented neutrophils seen in ?
B12 deficiency
Monocyte
Large kidney shaped nucleus, frosted glass cytoplasm. Differentiate into macrophages in tissues
Week 4
Heart begins to beat
Upper and lower limb buds begin to form
Week 10
Genitalia have male / female characteristics
Ace - inhibitors during fetal development
Renal damage
Cocaine during fetal development
Abnormal fetal development and fetal addiction
DES during fetal development
Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
Iodide during fetal development
Congenital goiter or hypothyroidism
13-cis-retinoic acid
Extremely high risk for birth defects
Thalidomide
Limb defects (Flipper Limbs)
Warfarin, x-rays
Mutiple anomalies
Umbilical cord vessels
2 umbilical arteries, 1 umbilical vein
1 umbilical artery associated with congenital and chromosomal anomalies
Embryologic derivatives - surface ectoderm
Adenohypophysis, lens of eye, epithelial linings, epidermis
Embryologic derivatives - Neuroectoderm
Neurohypohysis, CNS neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, pineal gland
Embryologic derivatives - Neural crest
ANS, dorsal root ganglia, melanocytes, chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla, enterochromaffin cells, pia, celiac ganglion, Schwann cells, odontoblasts, parafollicular cells of thryoid and laryngeal cartilage
Embryologic derivatives - Mesoderm
Dura connective tissue, muscle, bone, cardiovascular structures, lymphatics, blood, urogenital structures, and serous linings of body cavities, spleen, adrenal cortex
Embryologic derivatives - endoderm
Gut tube epithelium and derivatives (lung, liver, pancreas, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid)
Embryologic derivatives - Notochord
Induces ectoderm to form neuroectoderm (neural plate)Its postnatal derivative is the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disk
Early development - Rule of 2's for 2nd week
2 germ layers (bilaminar disk): epiblast, hypoblast
2 cavities: amniotic cavity, yolk sac
2 components to placenta: cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast
Early development - Rule of 3's for 3rd week
3 germ layers (gastula):
Ectoderm
Mesoderm
Endoderm
Fetal Erythropoiesis
Yolk sac (3-8 weeks)
Liver (6-30 weeks)
Spleen (9-28 weeks)
Bone Marrow (28 weeks+)
Young Liver Synthesizes Blood
Embryonic structure Truncus Arteriosus gives rise to
Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
Embryonic structure Bulbus cordis gives rise to
Smooth parts of left and right ventricle
Embryonic structure Primitive ventricle gives rise to
Trabeculated parts of left and right ventricle
Embryonic structure primitive atria gives rise to
Trabeculated left and right atrium
Embryonic structure left horn of Sinus Venosus gives rise to
Coronary Sinus
Embryonic structure right horn of sinus venosus gives rise to
Smooth parts of right atrium
Embryonic structure right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein gives rise to
SVC
Fetal-postnatal derivatives
Umbilical vein ->
Ligamentum teres hepatis
Fetal-postnatal derivatives
Umbilical arteries ->
medial umbilical arteries
Fetal-postnatal derivatives
Dutus venosus ->
ligamentum venosum
Fetal-postnatal derivatives
Foramen Ovale ->
Fossa Ovalis
Fetal-postnatal derivatives
Allantois -> urachus ->
median umbilical ligament

Urachal cyst or sinus is a remnant of the allantois
Fetal-postnatal derivatives
Notochord ->
nucleus pulposus
Aortic Arch derivatives

1st aortic arch
Part of Maxillary artery

1st arch is MAXimal
Aortic Arch derivatives

2nd aortic arch
Stapedial artery and hyoid artery
Second = Stapedial
Aortic Arch derivatives

3rd aortic arch
Common Carotid artery and proximal part of internal carotid artery

C is third letter of alphabet
Aortic Arch derivatives

4th aortic arch
L = Aortic arch
R = Proximal part of right subclavian artery

4th arch = systemic - limbs
Aortic Arch derivatives

6th aortic arch
Proximal part of pulmonary arteries and (L only) ductus arteriosus

Pulmonary
Branchial apparatus
CAP =
Clefts = ectoderm
Arches = mesoderm
Pouches = endoderm
Branchial Arch 1 derivatives
Meckel's cartilage = Mandible, malleus, incus, sphenoMandibular ligament
Muscles of mastication, mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli paltini
CN V3
Branchial Arch 2 derivatives
Reichert's cartilage: Stapes, Styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohyoid ligament
Muscles: Facial expression, Stapedius, Stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric
CN VII
Branchial Arch 3 derivatives
Greater horn of hyoid
Muscles= Stylopharyngeus
CN IX
Branchial Arch 4 derivatives
Cartilages: Thryoid, cricoid, arytenoids, corniculate, cuneiform
Muscles: most pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid, levator veli palatini
CN X
Branchial Arch 6 derivatives
Muscles: all intrinsic muscles of larynx (except cricothryoid)
CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch)
Branchial arch innervation
Arch 1
Arch 2
Arch 3
Arch 4
Arch 6
Arch 1 = V2 and V3
Arch 2 = VII
Arch 3 = IX
Arch 4 & 6 = X
Branchial cleft derivatives
1st cleft = external auditory meatus
2nd through 4th clefts = Temporary cervical sinuses
Branchial pouch derivatives

1st pouch =
Middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells
Branchial pouch derivatives

2nd pouch =
epithlial lining of palatine tonsil
Branchial pouch derivatives

3rd pouch (dorsal wings) =
Inferior parathyroids
Branchial pouch derivatives

3rd pouch (ventral wings) =
develops into thymus
Branchial 3rd pouch contributes to 3 structures
Thymus, left and right inferior parathyroids
Branchial pouch derivatives

4th pouch =
Superior parathyroids
Aberrant development of 3rd & 4th pouches =
DiGeorge Syndrome
Cleft lip =
Failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes
Cleft palate =
failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, and/or the median palatine process
Diaphragm is derived from
Septum Transversum
Pleuroperitoneal folds
Body wall
Dorsal mesentery of esophagus
Several Parts Build Diaphragm
Bone formation
Intramembranous =

Endochondral =
Intramembranous = Spontaneous bone formation without preexisting cartilage

Endochondral = Ossification of cartilagenous molds
5 2's of Meckel's diverticulum
2 inches long
2 feet from ileo-cecal valve
2% of population
Commony presents in first 2 years of life
May have 2 types of epithelia
Pancreas is derived from
Foregut
Spleen arises from
Dorsal mesentery but is supplied by artery of foregut
Mesonephric (Wolffian) duct develops into
SEED
Seminal vesicles
Epidydmis
Ejaculatory duct
Ductus deferens
Paramesonephric (mullerian) duct develops into
Fallopian tubes, uterus and part of vagina
Bicornuate uterus
incomplete fusion of the paramesonephric ducts

Associated with infertility and UTI's
Middle (neck) of sperm contains:
Mitochondria
Sperm food supply is
fructose
Meiosis I is arrested in prOphase until
Ovulation
Meiosis II is arrested in METaphase until
Fertilization

An egg met a sperm
Polyhydramnios is associated with
esophageal/duodenal atresia

anencephaly
Oligohydramnios is associated with
bilateral renal agenesis
Potter's syndrome
Bilateral renal agenesis -> oligohydramnios -> limb deformities, facial deformities, pulmonary hypoplasia
Babies with Potter's can't PEE
C2 dermatome =
Posterior half of "skull" cap
C3 dermnatome =
High turtleneck shirt
C4 dermatome =
low collar shirt
T4 dermatome =
Nipple
T4 is at the teat pore
T7 dermatome =
Xiphoid process
T10 dermatome =
Umbilicus

T10 is at the belly butten
L1 dermatome =
Inguinal ligament
L4 dermatome =
Kneecaps

Down on all 4's
S2,3,4 dermatome =
keep the shit off the floor
Rotator cuff muscles
SItS
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
teres minor
Subscapularis
Supraspinatus muscle =
helps deltoid abduct arm
Infraspinatus muscle =
lateral rotation of arm
Teres minor muscle =
adducts and medially rotates arm
Subscapularis muscle =
medially rotates and adducts arm
Thenar / Hypothenar muscles
OAF
Oppose
Abduct
Flex
Thenar eminence =
Opponens pollicis
Abductor pollicis bravis
Flexor pollicis brevis
Hypothenar eminence =
Opponens digiti minimi
Abductor digiti minimi
Flexor digiti minimi
Unhappy triad of knee injuries
MCL, medial meniscus, and ACL
SCALP =
Skin
Connective tissues
Aponeurosis
Loose connective tissues = vascular layer
Pericranium
Mastication muscles
M's Munch / Lateral Lowers
Masseter, TeMporalis, Medial pterygoid
Lateral Pterygoid Lowers
3 structures inside carotid sheath
VAN
Internal jugular Vein
Common carotid Artery
Vagus Nerve
Pulmonary artery to Lung relations =
RALS
Right anterior to bronchus
Left superior to bronchus
Femoral triangle contents
N (AVEL)
Nerve - outside of femoral sheath
Artery
Vein
Empty space
Lymphatics
Abdominal Hernias
MD's don't Lie
Medial to inferior epigastric arteries = Direct
Lateral to inferior epigastric arteries = Indirect
Indirect = Internal ring
Indirect = Infants
Celiac artery supplies forgut =
Stomach, duodenum; liver, gallbladder, pancreas
SMA supplies midgut =
Duodenum to proximal 2/3 of transverse colon
IMA supplies hindgut =
Distal 1/3 of transverse colon to upper portion of rectum
Ureters pass under artery
Water is under the bridge
Ligaments of the uterus - Suspensory ligaments
Contains ovarian vessels
Ligaments of the uterus - Transverse cervical (cardinal) ligament
contains uterine vessels
Ligaments of the uterus - Round ligament of the uterus
No important structures
Ligaments of the uterus - Broad ligament
Contains the round ligaments of the uterus and ovaries and the uterine tubules and vessels
Peripheral nerve layers - Endoneurium invests
single nerve fiber
Peripheral nerve layers - Perineurium invests
fascicle of nerve fibers
Peripheral nerve layers - epineuriuim invests
surrounds entire nerve (fasciles and blood vessels)
Meissner's corpuscle
small, encapsulated sensory receptors for light discriminatory touch of glaborous (hairless) skin
Pacinian corpuscles
Large, encapsulated receptors for pressure, coarse touch and vibration
Collagen type I
BONE - tendon, skin, dentin, fascia, cornea, late wound repair
Collagen type II
carTwolage - cartilage, vitreous body, nucleus pulposus
Collagen type III
Skin, blood vessels, uterus, fetal tissue, granulation tissue
Collagen Type IV
Type IV lays the floor (basement membrane)
Collagen Type X
epiphyseal plate
Epidermal layers
Californians like girls in string bikinis
Corneum
Lucidum stratum
Granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum Basalis
Kartagener's syndrome
Dynein arm defect resulting in immotile cilia
Infertility
RER produces
proteins
SER produces
lipids
Lymph node follicles
Site of B cell localization and proliferation
Lymph node medulla
medullary cords and sinuses
Lymph node paracortex
Houses T cells
Lumbar punctures structures
Skin, ligaments, epidural space, Dura mater, subdural space, arachnoid, CSF
PIA is not pierced
Peroneal nerve
PED - Peroneal Everts and Dorsiflexes
Tibial nerve
TIP - Tibial Inverts and Plantarflexes

Cannot stand on tip toes
Blood Brain Barrier is guarded by:
CIA
Choroid plexus epithelium
Intracerebral capillary endothelium
Arachnoid
Hypothalamus functions
TAN HATS
Thirst and water balance
Adenohypohysis
Neurohypophysis
Hunger
Autonomic regulation
Temperature regulation
Sexual urges
Hunger area of hypothalamus
If you zap your ventromedial nucleus, you grow ventrally and medially
Heat regulation of hypothalamus
Zap posterior become poikilotherm (cold-blooded)
A/C area of hypothalmus
Anterior = A/C (cooling)
Functions of thalamic nuclei
Lateral = Look
Medial = Music
Limbic system functions - 5 F's
Feeding, fighting, feeling, flight and sex
Chorea =
Dancing (choreography)
Basal Ganglia lesion - huntington's chorea
Athetosis =
writhing movements of fingers

Basal ganglia lesion
Hemiballismus =
Half - ballistic

Contralateral subthalamic nucleus lesion
Brain lesions - broca's area
Expressive aphasia with good comprehension

Broken speech
Brain lesions - wernicke's area
Fluent aphasia with poor comprehension

Word salad makes no sense
Brain lesions - Arcuate fasiculus
Conduction aphasia - poor repetition with good comprehension, fluent speech
Brain lesions - amygdala
Kluver-Bucy syndrome (hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior)
Brain lesions - frontal lobe
Personality changes - deficits in concentration, judgement, inhibitions
Brain lesions - right parietal lobe
Spatial neglect syndrome
Brain lesions - reticular activating system
coma
Brain lesions - mammillary bodies
Wernicke - Korsakoff's encephalopathy (confabulations, anterograde amnesia)
Brain lesions - basal ganglia
tremor at rest
Brain lesions - Cerebellar hemisphere
Intention tremor, limb ataxia
Brain lesions - Cerebellar vermis
Truncal ataxia and dysarthria
Nerves passing through cavernous sinuses
CN III, IV, V1, V2 and VI
Contents of Optic canal
CN II, opthalamic artery, central retinal vein
Contents of Superior orbital fissure
CN III, IV, V1, and VI, opthalmic vein
Contents of Foramen Rotundum
CN V2
Contents of Foramen Ovale
CN V3
Contents of Foramen spinosum
middle mengingeal artery
Contents of internal auditory meatus
CN VII, VIII
Contents of jugular foramen
CN IX,X, XI, jugular vein
Contents of hypoglossal canal
CN XII
Contents of Foramen Magnum
Brain stem and vertebral arteries
Spinal roots of CN XI
Bell's Palsy seen as a complication in what diseases?
ALexander Bell with STD
AIDS, Lyme disease, Sarcoid, Tumors, Diabetes