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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anticentromere antibodies
Scleroderma (CREST)
Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies
Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies
Goodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)
Antihistone antibodies
Drug-induced SLE (hydralazine, isoniazid, phenytoin, procainamide)
Anti-lgG antibodies
Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)
1º biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)
Vasculitis (c-ANCA: Wegener’s; p-ANCA: microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome)
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)
SLE (type Ill hypersensitivity)
Antiplatelet antibodies
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
Anti-topoisomerase antibodies
Diffuse systemic scleroderma
Anti-transglutaminase/ antigliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies
Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)
"Apple core" lesion on abdominal x-ray
Colorectal cancer (usually left sided)
Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts
Auer rods (acute myelogenous leukemia, especially the promyelocytic [M3] type)
Bacitracin response
Sensitive: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A); resistant: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)
"Bamboo spine" on x-ray
Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)
Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs
Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)
Basophilic stippling of RBCs
Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia
Bloodytap on LP
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
"Boot-shaped" heart on x-ray
Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH
Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules
Actinomyces israelii
Bronchogenic apical lung tumor
Pancoast tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner's syndrome)
"Brown" tumor of bone
Hemorrhage (hemosiderin) causes brown color of osteolytic cysts. Due to:
l. Hyperparathyroidism
2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
Chagas' disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)
Cellular crescents in Bowman’s capsule
Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
"Chocolate cyst" of ovary
Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils
Homer Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)
Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs
Cystic fibrosis (AR mutation to CFTR resulting in fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)
Decreased alfa-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum
Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormality
Degeneration of dorsal column nerves
Tabes dorsalis (3º syphilis)
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra
Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum
Curschmann's spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)
Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid
Cali-Exner bodies (granulosa theca cell tumor of the ovary)
Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia
Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)
Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies
"Owl's-eye" appearance of CMV
Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei
"Orphan Annie" eye nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell
Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell
Lewy body (Parkinson's disease)
Eosinophilic globule in liver
Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)
Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells
Rabies virus (Lyssavirus)
Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain
Senile plaques (Alzheimer’s disease)
Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye")
Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin’s lymphoma)
Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells
Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)
"Hair-on-end" (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray
Beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)
hOG elevated
Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)
Heart nodules (granulomatous)
Aschoff bod ies (rheumatic fever)
Heterophile antibodies
Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions
Bronchial asthma (Charcot Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)
High level of D-dimers
DVT, pulmonary embolism, DIC
Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify)
Ghon complex 1º TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)
"Honeycomb lung" on x-ray
Interstitial fibrosis
Hypersegmented neutrophils
Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neurologic symptoms; folate deficiency: no neurologic symptoms)
Hypochromic, microcytic anemia
Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (HbF sometimes present)
Increased a-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum
Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
Increased uric acid levels
Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics
Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet like bodies
Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or CMV)
Iron-contai ning nodules in alveolar septum
Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: increase chance of mesothelioma)
Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency
Chédiak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)
"Lead pipe" appearance of colon on x-ray
Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)
Linear appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence
Goodpasture's syndrome
Low serum ceruloplasmin
Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)
"Lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence
Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)
Lytic ("hole-punched") bone lesions on x-ray
Multiple myeloma
Mammary gland ("blue-domed“) cyst
Fibrocystic change of the breast
Monoclonal antibody spike
l. Multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA)
2 . Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; normal consequence of aging)
3. Waldenstrom's (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia
4. Primary amyloidosis
Monoclonal globulin protein in blood/urine
Bence Jones proteins (multiple myeloma [kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine]), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus
Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)
Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium radiograph
"String sign" (Crohn's disease)
Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals
Gout (monosodium urate crystals)
Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli
Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)
Novobiocin response
Sensitive: Staphylococcus epidermidis; resistant: Staphylococcus saprophyticus
"Nutmeg" appearance of liver
Chronic passive congestion of liver clue to right heart failure
"Onion-skin" periosteal reaction
Ewing's sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)
Optochin response
Sensitive: Streptococcus pneumoniae; resistant: Viridans streptococcus
Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area
Cadman's triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)
Podocyte fusion on EM
Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)
Polished, "ivory-like” appearance of bone at cartilage erosion
Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)
Protein aggregates in neurons
from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau
Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer's disease and CJD)
Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy
Glioblastoma multiforme
RBC casts in urine
Acute glomerulonephritis
Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells
Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)
Renal epithelial casts in urine
Acute toxic/viral nephrosis
Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent
Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate)
Rib notching
Coarctation of the aorta
Ring-enhancing brain l esion in AIDS
Toxoplasma gondii
Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells ( "starry sky” appearance on histology)
Burkitt's lymphoma (t[8:14) c myc activation, associated with EBV; "black sky" made up of malignant cells)
Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons
Pick bodies (Pick's disease: progressive dementia, changes in personality)
"Soap bubble" in femur or tibia on x-ray
Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)
"Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like” subepithelial deposits
Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)
Stacks of red blood cells
Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)
Stippled vaginal epithelial cells
"Clue cells" (Gardnerella vaginalis)
"Tennis-racket”-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells
Birbeck granules (histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)
Thrombi made of white/red layers
Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)
'Thumb sign" on lateral x-ray
Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)
Thyroid-like appearance of kidney
Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
"Tram-track" appearance on LM
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles
Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)
WBCs that look "smudged"
CLL (almost always B cell; affects the elderly)
"Wire loop” glomerular appearance on LM
Lupus nephropathy
Yellow CSF
Xanthochromia (previous subarachnoid hemorrhage)