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62 Cards in this Set

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Peace Officers Roles/Responsibilities
-ensuring officer safety
-safety of ill or injured and public
-evaluating emergency situation
-initiating actions for care of injured or ill
Scene Assessment
-Location(address,potential hazards)
-Type of emergency(car accident,ill person,injury caused by crime)
Victim(# of victims, age, condition,type of injury if known)
Additional resources if needed
Safety(possible dangers)
-biological hazards(body fluids)
-criminal hazard(armed suspects,guns)
-environmental(fire, chemicals,chance of explosion)unsafe scene(traffic, unstable building, light pole)
Pathogens
Spread through air or by contact with others persons blood or body fluids(breast milk,vaginal fluid, fecal matter)
-Portal of entry and exit and a seceptable host
*Sweat is not contagious
**If exposed use antibacterial soap, report to commanding officer and write a 15-7(Documentation)
PPE
-protective gloves
-eye protection
-mask
-gowns
-pocket respiration mask
Immunity from Liability
-act within the scope of their employment
-in good faith
-scope of their training and specific agency policy
Expressed Consent
-clearly identify yourself
-ask for consent before providing emergency care
*Lawful Consent is when person is conscious and oriented, mentally competent,18+,emancipated minor
Implied Consent
-unconscious
-incapable because of emotional or mental disability
-altered state of mind(drugs, alcohol..)
-juvenile
Life Threatening Injuries
Have to threat regardless of the victims conscious condition
-DNR(must follow instructions)
***If an impaled object obstructs the airway then you can remove, otherwise you must not take it out***
*****We can pronounce death when the person is decapitated or incenerated ****
Primary Survey (Initial survey)
-Check responsiveness
-A B C's
-Control major bleeding
-Treat for shock
Secondary Survey(focused survey)
-Check vitals(skin color, temp, respiratory and pulse rate)
-gather info about victim
-check head to toe for injuries
Moving a Victim
-Do not move unless it is absolutely necessary
Only if
IMMINENT DANGER-(fire, toxic gases, uncontrolled traffic if nobody there to help block it..etc.
You can do it when CPR is required and you are unable to perform it inside of the car.
Shoulder Drag
You can move a victim it they are face up(supine) or face down(prone)..If you move a victim bend your knees, keep your back straight and let your leg muscles do most of the work.* * drag them in a straight line * *
CPR
Cardiopulmonary Breathing
Method of artificially restoring and maintaining victims breathing and circulation.
Circulatory System
-Heart
-Blood Vessels
-Blood
Bleeding Control
1st-Direct pressure
2nd-Elevation*do not use if spinal injury is suspected or fracture to a limb
3rd-Pressure points *artery near a bone {Brachial for upper body and Femoral for lower}
-Tourniquet is last resort and should not be done
SHOCK
Life threatening condition
-altered mental state(confusion,anxiety,combativeness..etc)
-pale, cool, moist skin
-sweating
-thirst,nausea,vomiting
-dull eyes, dialated pupils
-rapid or weak pulse
-abnormal breathing
**high temperature can NOT be an indicator of shock
Treating for shock
ALL VICTIMS SHOULD BE TREATED FOR SHOCK..
-control external bleeding on other injuries
-place in appropriate position of comfort
-maintain body temperature(if cold warm up, if warm loosen clothes)
-reasure victim(talk in a calm voice)
* * Do not give anything to drink!!
Indications of Head Injury
-Looks intoxicated
-Visible(swelling or bruising)
-Bloody fluid from ears(cerebral fluid) or nose
-Unequal pupils
-Bruising behind ears
-Raccon eyes (Discoloration around eyes)
*If unable to establish airway w/jaw thrust then the head tilt chin lift may be used after 3 attempts.
***Do not apply pressure on head or elevate victims legs***
Nosebleeds
Lean slightly forward and pinch the nose
*do not pack the victims nostrils
Chest and Abdominal Injuries
-Blunt Trauma(Blow to the chest)
-Penetrating Object(Bullets, knives, metal, glass)
-Compression(Striking a steering wheel)
Flail Chest
Caused by trauma to chest
-Indicators are painful shallow breathing and PARADIXICAL BREATHING(uneven movement of the chest)
**Treatment**place victim in supine position w/object to rest head,apply pressure to area, and reduce pain
Open Chest Wound
Sucking Chest wound
*use an Occlusive Dressing(3 sides) nonporous(plastic)
Closed Abdominal Wound
May have internal bleeding
INDICATORS(Fetal position, rapid shallow breathing and pulse, tender abdomen,pain to the touch of belly)
FIRST AID (if no spinal injury place victim in supine with knees bent up), treat for shock, be prepared for victim to vomit.
Open Abdominal Wounds
Apply sterile dressing over wound to control bleeding
** If you have protruding organs cover them with a MOIST
WET Dressing and seal with a 4 side occlusive dressing.
Seal w/ airtight bandage.
Fractures
Complete or partial break of the bone including open and close fractures.
Dislocation of Bone
Bone pushed or pulled from a joint
Sprains
Stretched or torn LIGAMENTS associated with JOINT injuries
Strains
Over stretching or tearing of MUSCLE
Bone, muscle, and joint injuries treatment
Do not try to fix them into place
-expose injury by removing clothes
-control bleeding
-check capillary refill to make sure dressing is not to tight
**Do not elevate legs if injury is in lower extremities
First Degree Burn(superficial burn)
Damage only to epidermis(outer layer of skin)
Ex..Mild sun burn
Second Degree Burn(partial thickness burn)
Damage to dermis and epidermis(2nd layer of skin containing nerves and hair follicles and sweat glands)
**Swelling and blisters
***Do not cover with dressings
Third Degree Burn (full thickness burn)
Dermis, epidermis and muscle and fatty layer under skin..
Fourth Degree Burn
Damage to bone and underlying organs
Thermal Burns
Caused by direct heat
*remove victim from source, cool w/water, dry sterile dressing loosely
*over-cooling 3 and 4th degree burns may lead to hypothermia
Chemical Burns
Caused by acids or alkalies contacting skin
If it is a dry powder brush away away from eyes before flushing with water
-remove chemical exposed clothing
-flush with water(copious amount) for 15-30 mins and apply a DRY sterile dressing
**mostly occur in industrial settings
Electrical Burns
Ensure that scene is safe to enter
Do not touch until you are sure the source of current is off.
** treat the same as Thermal wounds
Cardiac Emergencies(heart attack and Coronary artery disease-CAD)
can also be caused by drowning, electrocution, suffocation choking, overdose, and allergic reaction.
(Chast pain, radiating pain mostly on left side, abnormal vitals, mental status off, sweating pale skin and nausea heartburn
Treating a Cardiac Emergency
Place victim in comfortable position, keep them calm to prevent shock, maintain body temperature
*never administer meds..just ask and assist if they have medications.
Seizures(caused by Epilepsy)
-similar to intoxicated person
staring, tic-like movements, lip smacking, picking at clothing, blueish skin tone, urination.
**Do not restrain them, place them on their side, move objects away that can harm them and cushion their head
Stroke
Confused mental state of mind
Convulsions, paralysis or weakness to a limb or side of the body, blurred vision, slurred speech
**Do not give victim anything by mouth
Insulin Shock(Hypoglycemia)
Not enough glucose
-more common, comes suddenly, skin is pail, cold and sweaty, breathingis normal, appears intoxicated, hostile, drooling
*Give them oral glucose (Gatorade, sugar water, honey)
Diabetic Coma(Hyperglycemia)
To much sugar
Starts slow, skin is red and warm, BREATH IS FRUITY, appears confused and intoxicated, dry mouth, abdominal pain but hungry.
Poison
Can be accidental or deliberate
Some people have a reaction in the whole body(systematic) called anaphylactic shock(airway swells)
Try to identify poison
Contact poison control center
Hypothermia(low temp)
95 and below
When it is mild there is violent shivering and when it is severe(less than 90 degrees) there is lack of shivering.
Remove wet clothing and rewarm victim slowly and keep them moving to increase circulation
* do not give alcohol or caffine
Frostbite
Freezing mostly in ears, face, nose, limbs, and toes.
Below skins surface
FROST NIP(Superficial freezing of skins outer layer)
Warm and wrap each digit separately
*Do not rub effected area or allow frozen area to refreeze after warming
Heat Cramps and Exhaustion
Body loses to much salt due to perspiration.
When body becomes dehydrated it leads to Heat Exhaustion(there is still sweating)
3 things to do, remove from source(heat), have them rest and give water in small amounts(cool down)
Heat Stroke(No sweat)
Anaphylaxis
Life threatening caused by allergens. Cause swelling and obstruct the airway
Marine Life Stings
Apply heat to deactivate venom enzymes
Anaphylaxis
Life threatening caused by allergens and cause swelling and obstruct the airway
Spider bites
Apply ICE
Heat Cramps and Exhaustion
Body loses to much salt due to perspiration.
When body becomes dehydrated it leads to Heat Exhaustion(there is still sweating)
3 things to do, remove from heat, have them rest and give water in small amounts
Heat Stroke(No sweat)
Snake Bites
Do not elevate
3 Stages of Labor
1)From onset of contractions to when woman is dilated
2)Full dilation of cervix to delivery
3)From delivery to delivery of placenta
*Post delivery care should be given
Imminent Birth
Should not be transported
*Contractions less than 2 mins or 5 mins if second birth
*Urge to bear down
*Crowning
*Amniotic sac has ruptured
Excessive Bleeding prior to Delivery
-Prevent shock
-Absorb blood with towels(regular bleeding control)
-Dry sterile gauze in the outside
Transporting Childbirth
-Limb presentation
-Breach(Feet or butt)
-Cord(Try to unwrap it)
-Delayed delivery
*Do not pull baby out
*Knee chest position
*Never transport in Black and White
Newborn Fails to Breath
Has to breath 30 seconds after birth
-Tapping feet may stimulate respiration
-Clean nose and mouth out
-Rescue breathing
-E.M.S.
The way blood flows
Arterial (Squirting Blood)
Vein( Steady flow of blood)
Capillary(Ooze)
Sympathetic Eye Movement
Cover both eyes during eye injury
Anatomic Splint
Use one of victims body parts to make a splint (Ex.Fingers for other fingers)
Distal Capillary Refill
Pinch tip of fingers ans see if original color returns, if not than your dressing is to tight