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52 Cards in this Set

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What are the sx of giardiasis
Bloating, flatulence, foul-smelling diarrhea
This protozoa is often seen in campers/hikers and results in bloating, flatulence, foul-smelling diarrhea
Giardia lamblia
Giardia lamblia is transmitted how? And can be dx by?
Cysts in water, trophozoites or cysts in stool
The treatment for giardiasis is
Metronidazole
This protozoa causes vaginitis that is characterized by foul-smell, greenish discharge, itching and burning
Trichomonas vaginalis
How is trichomonas vaginalis transmitted?
Sexually
Trichomonas vaginalis is dx how?
Trophozoites (motile) on wet mound
The treatment for trichomonas vaginitis is
Metronidazole
Chagas disease is cased by what organism
Trypanosoma cruzi
What are the three sx characteristic of Chagas, and what part of the world do you find this disease
dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus; South America
What is the treatment for Chagas disease
Nifurtimox
The reduviid bug ("kissing bug") is responsible for the transmission of this organism
Trypanosoma cruzi
Trypanosoma cruzi infection can be dx by
Blood smear
African sleeping sickness can be caused by what two organisms?
Trypanosoma gambiense, Trypanosoma rhodesiense
What are the sx of African sleeping sickness?
Enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever (due to antigenic variation), somnolence, coma
The tsetse fly is responsible for transmission of what organism?
Trypanosoma gambiense and Trypanosoma rhodesiense
The treatment for blood borne African sleeping sickness is
Suramin
"SURe is nice to go to sleep."
The treatment for African sleeping sickness that has penetrated the CNS is
Melarsoprol - MELAtonin helps with sleep
Trypanosoma gambiense and Trpanosoma rhodesiense can be diagnosed by
Blood smear
Leishmania donovani cause what disease
Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)
What are the sx of visceral leishmaniasis
spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia
The sandfly transmits what organism?
Leishmania donovani
Leishmania donovani is transmitted by what organism?
Sandfly
How do you diagnose infection by Leishmania donovani?
Macrophages containing amastigotes
What is the treatment for visceral leishmaniasis
Sodium stibogluconate
Name the four types of malaria
Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium falciparum
What are the common sx of malaria
Cyclic fever, headache, anemia, splenomegaly
What types of Plasmodium have dormant forms in liver (hypnozoites) and causes relapsing malaria?
P. vivax and P. ovale
What Plasmodium cases severe malaria that can affect CNS
P. falciparum
What is the treatment for malaria?
Chloroquine (primaquine to prevent relapse caused by P. vivax, P. ovale), sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine, mefloquine, quinine
What are the symptoms of Babesiosis
fever and hemolytic anemia
How is Babesia transmitted?
Ixodes tick
What is a protozoa that is transmitted by the Ixodes tick
Babesia
What is a Maltese cross
A classic sign of Babesiosis: a RBC has no RBC pigment and a cross shape can be seen
What RBC forms are seen in babesiosis
Maltese cross and ring forms
What are the treatments for babesiosis
Quinine, clindamycin
Cryptosporidium causes what condition
Mild disease (watery diarrhea) in non-immunocompromised. Severe diarrhea in AIDS.
How is Cryptosporidium transmitted? diagnosed?
Cysts in water, cysts on acid-fast stain
There is no treatment for Cryptosporidium: true or false
TRUE
What protozoa causes brain abscess in HIV and birth defects?
Toxoplasma gondii
How is Toxoplasma gondii transmitted?
Cysts in meat or cat feces; crosses placenta (pregnant women should avoid cats)
Why should pregnant women avoid cats?
Risk of Toxoplasma gondii transmission.
How is Toxoplasma gondii infection diagnosed?
Serology, biopsy
How is Toxoplasma gondii infection treated?
Sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine
What organism can cause bloody diarrhea, liver abscess, and RUQ pain?
Entamoeba histolytica; Amebiasis
How is Amebiasis transmitted
Cysts in water
How is amebiasis dx?
Serology and/or trophozoites or cysts in stool; RBCs in cytoplasm of entmoeba
Treatment for Entamoeba histolytica infection
Metronidazole and iodoquinol
Naegleria fowleri is responsible for what disease
Rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis
Rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis is caused by what protozoa?
Naegleria fowleri
How is Naegleria fowleri transmitted?
Swimming in freshwater lakes (enter via cribriform plates)
How is Naegleria fowleri diagnosed?
Amoebas in spinal fluid