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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Expansion rate of steam.
1700 to 1
How many types of ventilation are there?
What are they?
4 types
& Hydraulic Ventilation
Define Vertical ventilation
normally involves opening the roof to allow smoke and heat to escape. Most effective at the highest point involve.
Define Horizontal ventilation
is venting of heat, smoke, and gases through wall openings such as windows and doors.
Define Forced ventilation
is venting with fans to force new air in and smoke and heat out and through building.
Define Hydraulic ventilation
is ventilation by crew inside the building using a fog pattern about 2 feet away from window. Pattern should fill 85% to 95% of window. Air drawn into the fog pattern pulls smoke out along with water.
Advantages of Vertical
a. Allows for natural convection
b. Improves interior visibility and lessens contaminated atmosphere
c. Lessens chance of back draft drastically
Disadvantages of Vertical
a. Possibility of weakened roofs
b. Time consuming
c. Some roofs may be difficult to ventilate
d. If not properly done, fire can be drawn to uninvolved areas
Advantages of Horizontal
a. Easier to accomplish than vertical vent
b. May be more effective
c. May be used with other methods
Disadvantages of Horizontal
a. Cannot be used if backdraft potential is suspected
b. Can draw fire into uninvolved areas
c. Consider interior and exterior exposures
d. Opening extra doors and windows can disrupt ventilation
Advantages of Forced
a. Insures more positive control
b. Supplements natural ventilation
c. Speeds smoke removal & reduces smoke danger
Disadvantages of Forced
a. Improperly used it can spread fire and smoke to uninvolved areas
b. Dependent on power supply
c. May require special equipment
Advantages of Hydraulic
a. Move effective than fans of mechanical ventilation.
b. Only a hoseline is needed
c. Water fog also protects personnel
Disadvantages of Hydraulic
a. Water damage may be increased
b. Drain of water supply
c. Freezing
d. Firefighters must be in atmosphere to ventilate it
Minimum size for vent hole of
residential and commercial
The minimum
-for residential is 4X4
-for commercial is 8X8
Should fire streams be used in vent holes under normal conditions?
Horizontal ventilation plan of action with wind.
Open top windows of leeward side(side wind is blowing away from) and open lower windows on windward side(side wind is blowing at). Open leeward side first.
Defive Ventilation
the planned and systematic release and removal of heated air, smoke, and gases from a structure, follow by the replacement of these products of combustion with a supply of cooler air
The indicators of a backdraft are:
a. Smoke stained windows
b. Smoke puffing @ intervals
c. Smoke coming through cracks
d. Little flame visible
e. Gray-yellow smoke
f. Windows rattling
g. Walls hot to the touch
Pattern on hydraulic ventilation should cover __% to __% of window.
85% to 90%
Describe how different factors can be used to check a roofs' integrity.
Know if it is truss construction. Don't trust the truss.
· Use your sight to look for signs of obvious sagging or other heat damage.
· "Sound" the roof to determine integrity.
How many means of escape routes from roof should be provided for fire fighters?
Provide two means of escape, being well apart from each other but close to work area.