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319 Cards in this Set

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Flammable or combustible liquid that is used to initiate or increase the speed of a fire.
Adjustable Flow Nozzle
Nozzle designed so that the amount of water flowing through the nozzle can be increased or decreased at the nozzle.
Aerial Fuels
Standing and supported live and dead combustibles not in direct contact with the ground and consisting mainly of foliage, twigs, branches, stems, cones, bark, and vines.
Aerobic Capacity
Measure of cardiovascular fitness that takes into account oxygen capacity and efficiency of the lungs and blood in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Luminous discharge that is formed when a current jumps a gap in a circuit or between 2 electrodes.
Person who commits an act of arson.
(1) Position facing a particular direction; exposure. (2) Compass direction toward which a slope faces.
Attack Hose
Hose between the attack pumper and the nozzle(s); also, any hose used in a handline to control and extinguish fire. Minimum size is 1 1/2 inch.
Automatic Nozzle
Fog stream nozzle that automatically corrects itself to provide a good stream at the proper nozzle pressure.
Instantaneous explosion or rapid burning of superheated gases that occurs when oxygen is introduced into an oxygen-depleted confined space. It may occur because of inadequate or improper ventilation procedures.
Balloon Throw
Method of spreading a salvage cover that utilizes air trapped under the cover to float it into place over materials to be protected.
Main structural member of a ladder supporting the rungs or rung blocks.
Lowest section of a multi-section ladder.  Also called Base.
Element of a knot formed by simply bending the rope back on itself while keeping the sides parallel.
Bird's Nest Coil
Method of coiling rope for storage or washing.
Area already burned by a wildland fire.   Synonymous with Burn.
Block Creel
Rope constructed without knots or splices in the fibers.
Boiling Point
Temperature of a substance when the vapor pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure. At this temperature, the rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of condensation. At this point, more liquid is turning into gas than gas is turning back into a liquid.
Truss type used in buildings with large, open spaces, easily denoted by their round appearance.
Breakover Angle
Angle formed by level ground and a line from the point where the rear tires of a vehicle touch the ground to the bottom of the frame at the wheelbase midpoint. This angle should be at least 10 degrees.
Broken Stream
Stream of water that has been broken into coarsely divided drops.
Combination of halogens used in the production of Halon 1211.
Burglar Blocks
Metal rod or special device used to block patio sliding doors from opening from the exterior.
Lower end of a ladder.  Also called Heel.
Butt Spurs
Metal safety plates or spikes attached to the butt end of ground ladder beams.
Butterfly Loop
Loop made at the beginning of a self-locking twin donut roll which creates the armhold in the finished roll.
Butterfly Valve
Type of control valve that uses a flat baffle operated by a quarter-turn handle.
Projecting beam or slab supported at one end.
Hemoglobin saturated with carbon monoxide and therefore unable to absorb needed oxygen.
Cascade System
Three or more large air cylinders, each usually with a capacity of 300 cubic feet, that are interconnected and from which smaller SCBA cylinders are recharged.
Casement Window
Window hinged along one side, usually designed to swing outward, with the screen on the inside.
Retaining basin, usually made from salvage covers, to impound water dripping from above.
Chain of Command
The process of relaying information through supervisors/leaders to the person responsible for an incident or group.
Checkrail Window
Type of window usually consisting of two sashes, known as the upper and lower sashes, that meet in the center of the window. Checkrail or double-hung windows may be made of either wood or metal, but the construction design is quite similar.
Chemical Asphyxiant
A chemical which, upon entrance into the lungs, prevents oxygen from combining in sufficient quantities with the blood or being used by body tissues.
Chemical Pellet
A type of sprinkler activation mechanism in which a small piece of solder, under compression, within a small cylinder, melts at a predetermined temperature.
A steep V-shaped drainage area that is critical in regards to wind velocities and wildland fires.
Circulating Feed
Fire hydrant that receives water from two or more directions.
Water storage receptacle that is usually underground and may be supplied by a well or rainwater runoff.
Clear Text
Use of plain English in radio communications transmissions. No ten codes or agency specific codes are used when using clear text.
Method of water treatment in which particles are collected into a solid mass.
Concealed space between the top floor and the roof of a structure.
Collapse Zone
A zone equal to 1 1/2 times the height of the building, created when a collapse potential exists.
Combination Attack
Battling a fire by using both a direct and an indirect attack.
Combination System
Water supply system that is a combination of both gravity and direct pumping systems. It is the most common type of municipal water supply system.
Act of directing, ordering, and/or controlling resources by virtue of explicit legal, agency, or delegated authority.
Common Hazard
Condition likely to be found in almost all occupancies and generally not associated with a specific occupancy or activity.
Communications Center
Point through which nearly all information flows, is processed, and then acted upon. Also called Comm Center.
Basic fire fighting organizational unit consisting of firefighters and apparatus; headed by a company officer.
One of the parts or spaces into which an area is subdivided.
Compressive Strength
The ability of a material to absorb compressive forces.
Condensed Steam
The visible portion of steam due to cooling and condensation.
Conductivity Test
Test for Class C extinguishing agents to ensure that they do not conduct electricity.
Confined Space
Any space not intended for continuous occupation, having limited openings for entry or exit, and providing unfavorable natural ventilation.
Control Valve
Valve used to turn off the water supply to a system so that maintenance or other operations can occur.
Controlled Breathing
Technique for consciously reducing air consumption by forcing exhalation from the mouth and allowing natural inhalation through the nose.
Transfer of heat by the movement of fluids or gases; usually in an upward direction.
The inner part of a rope.
Formed into ridges or grooves.
Counterbalanced Fire Door
Fire door with counterweights which act to close the door in case of fire.
Critical Incident Stress
Stress caused by encounters with gruesome, horrific, or disturbing incidents.
Dead End Hydrant
Fire hydrant that receives water from only one direction.
Process of sharing feeling and thoughts about incidents to provide stress relief.  Synonymous with Defusing.
Part of a sprinkler which redirects and/or reshapes the flow of water.
Process of sharing feeling and thoughts about incidents to provide stress relief.  Synonymous with Debriefing.
Direct Attack
(1) To attack a natural cover fire directly at or close to the burning edge. (2) Application of a fire stream directly onto a burning fuel.
Direct Line
Phone line which does not have access to the public switch network and do not have a dial tone.  Connects Point A and Point B.
Direct Pumping System
Water supply system supplied directly by a system of pumps rather than elevated storage tanks.
Training expected to produce a specific character or pattern of behavior.
Subunit of the incident command system. It is composed of a number of individual units that are assigned to operate within a defined geographical area.
Door Jamb
Sides of the doorway opening.
Process of obtaining water from a static source into a pump that is above the source's level. Atmospheric pressure on the water surface forces the water into the pump where a partial vacuum has been created.
Dry Barrel Hydrant
Fire hydrant that has its opening valve at the water main rather than in the barrel of the hydrant. When operating properly, there is no water in the barrel of the hydrant when it is not in use. These hydrants are used in areas where freezing could occur.
Dry Chemical
Any one of a number of powdery extinguishing agents used to extinguish fires. The most common include sodium or potassium bicarbonate, monoammonium phosphate, or potassium chloride.
Dry Powder
Extinguishing agent suitable for use on combustible metal fires.
Fire-resistive building material that consists of a layer of highly compacted gypsum material sandwiched between two layers of paper. Also called Wallboard, Plasterboard, or Sheetrock.
Ductile Iron Pipe
Common type of underground water pipe used to convey large amounts of water.
Matted, partly decomposed leaves, twigs, and bark beneath trees and brush.
Extra fold placed along the length of a section of hose as it is loaded so that its coupling rests in proper position.
Dynamic Rope
Rope that stretches farther than a static rope stretches.
A current of air or water moving against or in a different direction than the main current.
Condition in which fluid escapes into the body tissues and causes local or generalized swelling.
Height of a point above sea level or some datum point.
Emergency Traffic
Urgent radio traffic; a request for other unit to clear the radio waves for an urgent message. Also called Priority Traffic.
Escape Plan
Predetermined route of evacuation and specified meeting location for a building or residence.
Etiologic Agents
Living microorganisms, like germs, that can cause human disease; a biologically hazardous material.
Items which lead to a conclusion or judgment about a fire and that can be used in court for conviction of a crime.
Expansion Ring
Malleable metal band that binds fire hose to a threaded coupling by compressing the hose tightly against the inner surface of the coupling.
Female Coupling
Threaded swivel device on a hose or appliance made to receive a male coupling of the same thread and diameter.
Basic unit of material used to construct ropes.  Can be natural or synthetic.
Fire Door
Rated assembly designed to automatically close and cover a doorway in a fire wall during a fire.
Fire Hazard
Any material, condition, or act that contributes to the start of a fire or that increases the extent or severity of fire.
Fire Inspector
Fire prevention specialist and/or fire or arson investigator.
Fire Load
Maximum amount of heat that can be produced if all the combustible materials in a given area burn.
Fire Resistive
Ability of a structure or a material to provide a predetermined degree of fire resistance; usually according to building and fire prevention codes and given in hour ratings.
Fire Safety Inspection
Inspection to ensure that citizens have a safe environment in which to live, work, study, worship, and play.
Fire Stop
Solid material, such as wood block, placed within a wall void to retard or prevent the spread of fire through the void.
Fire Stream
Stream of water or other water-based extinguishing agent after it leaves the fire hose and nozzle until it reaches the desired point.
Flammable Limit
Percentage of a substance in air that will burn once it is ignited. Most substances have an upper (too rich) and lower (too lean) flammable limit. Also called Explosive Limit and Flammable Range.
Sides of a natural cover fire.
Flash Point
Minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near the liquid's surface.
Stage of a fire at which all surfaces and objects within a space have been heated to their ignition temperature, and flame breaks out almost at once over the surface of all objects in the space.
Floor Runner
Heavy plastic or canvas placed on a floor to protect the floor's surface or covering from firefighter traffic; used during salvage operations.
Extendable section of ground extension or aerial ladder.
Fog Stream
Water stream of finely divided particles used for fire control.
Rubber or neoprene skid-proof plates attached to the end of some ladders.
Forced Ventilation
Any means other than natural ventilation. This type of ventilation may involve the use of fans, blowers, smoke ejectors, and fire streams. Also called Mechanical Ventilation.
Forward Lay
Method of laying hose from the water supply to the fire scene.
Frangible Bulb
A small liquid filled bulb with an air bubble that holds the orifice of a sprinkler shut.
Friction Loss
Loss of pressure created by the turbulence of water moving against the interior walls of the hose or pipe.
Fuel Hazard
Any material that can contribute to the start of a fire or that increases the extent or severity of fire.
Fusible Link
Connecting link device that fuses or melts when exposed to heat. Used in sprinkler heads, fire doors, dampers, and ventilators.
Gabled Roof
Style of pitched roof with square ends in which the end walls of the building form triangular areas beneath the roof.
Gate Valve
Control valve with a solid plate operated by a handle and screw mechanism. Rotating the handle moves the plate into or out of the waterway.
Gravity System
Water supply system that relies entirely on 'the force of gravity to propel the water throughout the system. This type of system is generally used in conjunction with an elevated water storage source.
Area of unburned fuels, not necessarily green in color, adjacent to but not involved in a wildland fire.
Ground Gradient
The tendency of an energized electrical conductors to pass its current along the path of least resistance (from highest to lowest potential) to the ground.
Subunit of the incident command system. It is composed of a number of individual units that are assigned to perform a particular function.
Wood or metal strips that guide the fly section of a multi-section ladder.
Inorganic product from which plaster and plasterboard are constructed.
Halogenated agent; extinguishes fire by inhibiting the chemical reaction between fuel and oxygen. Phased out in the year 2000.
Rope used on extension ladders to extend the fly sections. Also called Fly Rope.
Handline Stream
Streams supplied by 1 1/2 to 3 inch hose which flows from 40 to 350 gpm.
Hard Suction Hose
Non-collapsible, rubberized length of hose with a steel core that connects a pump to a source of water and is used for drafting. Also called Hard Sleeve.
Fastening device consisting of a loop, eye, or staple and a slotted hinge or bar; commonly used with a padlock.
Heat Of Combustion
Amount of heat generated by the combustion (oxidation) reaction.
Heat Of Compression
Amount of heat generated by the the expansion of gases within an enclosed space.
Heat Sensor Label
Label affixed to the ladder beam near the tip to provide a warning that the ladder has been subjected to excessive heat.
Heat Source Hazard
Any condition that contributes to the start of a fire or that increases the extent or severity of fire.  Examples are chemical, electrical, mechanical, and nuclear.
Heavy Content Fire Loading
Storing of combustible materials in high piles that are placed close together.
Heavy Timber Construction
Type of construction where the load-bearing structure is composed of large wooden beams and trusses.
Firefighter who carries the butt end of the ladder and/or who subsequently heels or secures it from slipping during operations.
Higbee Cut
Special cut at the beginning of the thread to provide positive identification of the first thread and to eliminate cross threading. Also called Blunt Start.
Higbee Indicator
Notch or groove cut into coupling lug to identify by touch or sight the exact location of the Higbee Cut.
Loop of rope that secures the rope but that is not a part of a standard rope knot.
Hollow Core Door
Doors constructed with a core of a web or grid of glued wood strips over which several layers of plywood veneer panels are glued.
Curved metal devices installed on the tip end of roof ladders to secure the ladder to the highest point on the roof of a building.
Horizontal Ventilation
Any technique by which heat, smoke, and other products of combustion are channeled out of a structure by way of existing or created horizontal openings such as windows, doors, or other holes in walls.
Hose Bed
Main hose-carrying area of a pumper or other piece of apparatus designed for carrying hose. Also called Hose Body.
Hydrant Bonnet
The top portion of a fire hydrant that encircles the operating nut and stem.
Organic compound containing only hydrogen and carbon and found primarily in petroleum products and coal.
Hydrostatic Test
Testing method used to check the integrity of pressure vessels.
Abnormal elevation of blood pressure.
Condition caused by a deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching body tissues.
Ignition Temperature
Minimum temperature to which a fuel in air must be heated in order to start self-sustained combustion independent of the heating source.
Incendiary Device
Contrivance designed and used to start a fire.
Incident Action Plan (IAP)
Strategic goals, tactical objectives, and support requirements for the incident. All incidents require an action plan. For simple incidents, the action plan is not usually in written form. Large or complex incidents will require that the action plan be documented in writing.
Incident Commander (IC)
Person in charge of the incident management system during an emergency.
Incident Management System (IMS)
Management system of procedures for controlling personnel, facilities, equipment, and communications so that different agencies can work together toward a common goal in an effective and efficient manner.
Incipient Fire
First phase of the burning process where the substance being oxidized is producing some heat, but the heat has not spread to other substances nearby. During this phase, the oxygen content of the air has not been significantly reduced.
Indicating Valve
Water main valve that visually shows the open or closed status of the valve.
Indirect Attack
Controlling the fire by locating the control line along natural firebreaks some distance from the approaching fire and burning out the intervening fuels.
Inline Stabilization
Process of keeping the neck of the patient in a stable inline position to avoid further spinal injury.
Intake Hose
Hose used to connect a fire department pumper or a portable pump to a nearby water source. It may be soft sleeve or hard suction hose.
Inside a vein.
Unburned area within a fire perimeter.
Jacketed Rope
Rope which consists of an inner portion and an outer sheath.
Jalousie Window
Window consisting of narrow, frameless, glass panes set in metal brackets at each end that allow the panes a limited amount of axial rotation for ventilation.
Jet Pump
Water-operated pump that creates a suction by using the venturi principle.
Horizontal supporting member in a roof, ceiling, or floor assembly.
Inset of the door jamb that accepts the latch or deadbolt of a locking mechanism.
Kernmantle Rope
Rope that consists of a protective shield (mantle) over the load-bearing core strands (kern).
Method of tying rope to join or connect objects or to form loops.
Means by which fire spreads vertically from floor to floor in a multistory building. Fire issuing from a window laps up the outside of the building and enters the floor(s) above, usually through the windows.
Ledge Door
Door constructed of individual boards joined within a frame. Also called Batten Door.
Protected side; the direction opposite from which the wind is blowing. Also called Lee.
Leg Lock
Method of entwining a leg around a ladder rung to ensure that the individual cannot fall from the ladder and thereby freeing the climbees hands for working.
Lexan ®
Polycarbonate plastic used for windows. It has one half the weight of an equivalent-sized piece of glass, yet it is 30 times stronger than safety glass and 250 times stronger than ordinary glass. It cannot be broken using standard forcible entry techniques.
Limited Combustible
Materials which allow for evacuation and interior firefighting due to their limited chance of combustion.
Load Bearing Wall
Wall that is used for structural support.
Locking Out
Process of shutting off and securing any power switches on a machine to prevent accidental or otherwise undesirable re-energization of the machine.
Logistics Section
Section of the incident management system responsible for providing facilities, services, and materials; includes the communications unit, medical unit, and food units within the service branch and also includes the supply unit, facilities unit, and ground support units within the support branch.
Element of a knot that consists of crossing the side of a bight over the standing part.
Low Volume Stream
Stream supplied usually from a booster line in which flows are less than 40 gpm.
Pipe (usually underground) of varying sizes, used for conveying large amounts of water.
Male Coupling
Hose nipple with protruding threads that fits into the thread of a female coupling of the same pitch and appropriate diameter and thread count.
Manila Rope
Rope made from manila fiber grown in Manila in the Philippines. It is not suitable for life safety applications.
Master Stream
Stream supplied by multiple 2 1/2 or 3 inch lines which discharges more than 350 gpm.
Mechanical Ventilation
Any means other than natural ventilation. This type of ventilation may involve the use of fans, blowers, smoke ejectors, and fire streams. Also called Forced Ventilation.
Modular Organization
An organizational structure made up of divisions and sectors that may be adapted to fit the situation.
Rectangular projection through roofs with metal, glass, or louvered sides. The sides are counterweighted, hinged, and designed to stay in place when held shut with a fusible link. Monitors are designed to ventilate an area when heat fuses the link.
Notch, hole, or space cut into a door to receive a lock case, which contains the lock mechanism.
Incident involving more than one jurisdiction.
Tendency of heat, smoke, and other products of combustion to rise until they encounter a horizontal obstruction. At this point they will spread laterally until they encounter vertical obstructions and begin to bank downward.
Natural Ventilation
Techniques that use the wind, convection currents, and other natural phenomena to ventilate a structure without the use of fans, blowers, or other mechanical devices.
Negative Pressure Ventilation
Technique using smoke ejectors to develop artificial circulation and to pull smoke out of a structure. Smoke ejectors are placed in windows, doors, or roof vent holes to pull the smoke, heat, and gases from inside the building and eject them to the exterior.
Nonbearing Wall
Usually an interior wall that supports only its weight; can be removed without compromising the structural integrity of the building. Also called Non-load bearing wall.
Incapable of combustion under normal circumstances.
Nonindicating Valve
Water main valve that does not visually show whether it is in the open or closed position.
Nonpolar Solvent
Liquids that do not mix readily with water.
Ordinary Construction
Construction type in which exterior walls and structural members are made of noncombustible or limited combustible materials with interior walls, columns, beams, floors, and roofs constructed partially or all of wood.
Searching for and extinguishing any hidden or remaining fire once the main body of fire has been extinguished.
Substance that yields oxygen readily and may stimulate the combustion of organic and inorganic matter.
Oxyacetylene Torch
Common forcible entry tool useful for penetrating heavy metal enclosures that are resistant to more conventional forcible entry equipment (cuts by burning).
Combination of oxygen and hemoglobin.
(1) Extension of the exterior walls above the roof. (2) Any required fire walls surrounding or dividing a roof or surrounding roof openings such as light/ ventilation shafts.
Interior wall that separates a space into rooms.
Party Wall
Wall common to two buildings.
Devices attached to the inside of the beams on fly sections used to hold the fly section in place after it has been extended. Also called Dogs or Ladder Locks.
Pendant Sprinkler
Automatic sprinkler head designed for placement and operation with the head pointing downward from the piping.
Penetrating Nozzle
A nozzle with an angled, case-hardened steel tip that can be driven through a wall, roof, or ceiling to extinguish hidden fire.  Also call Piercing Applicator Nozzle.
Peripheral Vision
Field of view to the sides.
Plate Glass
Sheet glass that is ground, polished, and clear.
Plexiglas ®
Trade name for a type of acrylic plastic used in windows.
Point Of Entry
Point at which entrance is made into a structure.
Polar Solvents
Liquids that mix readily with water.
Positive Pressure Ventilation
Method of ventilating a confined space by mechanically blowing fresh air into the space in sufficient volume to create a slight positive pressure within and thereby forcing the contaminated atmosphere out the exit opening.
A method of instructing responding companies of the address while additional information is gathered by the dispatcher.
Preincident Planning
Act of preparing to handle an incident at a particular location or a particular type of incident before an incident occurs. Also called Pre-fire Planning, Preplanning, Pre-fire Inspection, or Pre-Incident Inspection.
Primary Feeder
Large pipes (mains), with relatively widespread spacing, that convey large quantities of water to various points of the system for local distribution to the smaller mains.
Primary Search
Rapid, but thorough search performed before or during suppression operations.
Protection Plates
Plates fastened to a ladder to prevent wear at points where it comes in contact with mounting brackets.
Public Alerting System
Any one of a number of systems used by anyone to report an emergency.  Can be by telephone, 2-way radio, walk-in, wired telegraph, telephone boxes, radio alarm boxes, or other means.
Small, grooved wheel through which the halyard is drawn on an extension ladder.
Quick Response Mechanism
A specially designed fusible link with increased surface area to absorb heat faster, thus activating faster.
Radio Log
Method of recording emergency traffic for future review by using a written log.
Lengthwise members of a trussed ladder.  Similar to a "beam" of a single ladder.
Recessed Lug
Shallow holes drilled into the connections to aid in tightening and loosening connections.  Requires the use of a special spanner wrench.  Commonly found on booster hose.
Interchanged, owed, or given to each other.
Retrieving a dead body.
Relay Pumping
Using two or more pumpers to move water over a long distance by operating them in series. Water discharged from one pumper flows through hoses to the inlet of the next pumper, and so on. Also called Relay Operation.
Retrieving a salvageable victim.
All of the immediate or supportive assistance available to help control an incident including personnel, equipment, control agents, agencies, and printed emergency guides.
Reverse Lay
Method of laying hose from the fire scene to the water supply.
Rocker Lug
Protrusions found on male coupling shanks and female coupling swivels that aid in tightening and breaking connections.
Round Turn
Element of a knot that consists of further bending one side of a loop.
Step portion of a ladder running from beam to beam.
Running End
Part of the rope that is to be used for work such as hoisting, pulling, or belaying.
Process by which firefighters attempt to save property from further damage by water, smoke, and heat by removing property from a fire area or by covering it.
Scuttle Hatch
Openings in the ceilings or roofs of buildings; fitted with removable covers for the purpose of providing access and ventilation to the cockloft or roof.
Secondary Feeder
Network of intermediate-sized pipes that reinforce the grid within the various loops of the primary feeder system and aid the concentration of the required fire flow at any point.
Secondary Search
Thorough, systematic search used to find remaining occupants.
Geographic or task-based subdivision within the Fireground Command System or National Fire Service Incident Management System.
Dirt and other foreign debris that may fall out of a fluid and collect in fluid-moving equipment.
Self Oxidizing
Ability of a substance to supply its own supply of oxygen.
Portion of a coupling that serves as a point of attachment to the hose.
The outer covering of a jacketed rope.
Tool used to cut wire or strip insulation from wires.
Sidewall Sprinkler
Sprinkler that extends from the side of a pipe and is used in small rooms where the branch line runs along a wall. It has a special deflector that creates a fan-shaped pattern of water.
Mental evaluation made by the operational officer in charge that enables him or her to determine a course of action to accomplish the mission; a mental process of evaluating all influencing factors before committing personnel and equipment to a course of action.
Item used during salvage to raise contents off the ground to avoid water damage to those contents.  Also called Pallets.
Skip Breathing
Emergency procedure in which the firefighter inhales normally, holds the inhalation for as long as it would take to exhale, takes another breath, and then exhales; used only when the firefighter is stationary and must wait for help.
Snap Coupling
Coupling set with non-threaded male and female components. When a connection is made, two spring-loaded hooks on the female coupling engage a raised ring around the shank of the male coupling.
Soft Sleeve Hose
Large diameter, collapsible piece of hose used to connect a fire pump to a pressurized water supply source; sometimes incorrectly referred to as "soft suction hose."
Solid Beam Construction
Beam construction type in which the beam is solid (wood) or without truss blocks (metal).
Solid Core Door
Door whose entire core is filled with solid material.
Solid Stream
Hose stream that stays together as a solid mass as opposed to a fog or spray stream.
Process of testing structural integrity of a roof or floor of a building, or of locating underlying supporting members, by striking the surface of the assembly with the blunt end of a hand tool.
Occurs when excess moisture trapped within the cement or concrete expands. This expansion of the moisture results in tensile forces within the concrete, causing it to break apart.
Spanner Wrench
Small tool primarily used to tighten or loosen hose couplings; can also be used as a prying tool or a gas key.
Spark Arrestor
Device attached to a chimney flue to keep large embers from exiting.
Special Hazard
Fire hazard arising from the processes or operations that are peculiar to the individual occupancy.
Split Lay
Hose lay deployed by two pumpers, one making a forward lay and one making a reverse lay from the same point.
Spot Fire
Natural cover fire caused by flying sparks or embers landing outside the main fire area.
Waterflow device in a sprinkler system that consists of a threaded nipple that connects to the water pipe, a discharge orifice, a heat-actuated plug that drops out when a certain temperature is reached, and a deflector that creates a stream pattern that is suitable for fire control.
Sprinkler Tongs
Tool used to stop the flow of water from a sprinkler head.
Sprinkler Wedge
Piece of wood in the shape of a wedge used to stop the flow of water from individual sprinklers. Also called Sprinkler Block.
Stack Effect
(1) Air or smoke movement through a building. Simply stated, cool air enters the lower levels of a building, and warm air within the building rises to the upper levels. (2) Tendency of any vertical shaft within a tall building to act as a chimney or "smokestack" by channeling heat, smoke, and other products of combustion upward due to convection.
Standing Part
That part of a rope between the working end and the running part.
Standpipe System
Wet or dry system of pipes in a large single-story or multistory building with fire hose outlets connected to them. The system is used to provide for quick deployment of hoselines during fire fighting operations.
Static Electricity
Accumulation of electrical charges on opposing surfaces created by the separation of unlike materials or by the movement of surfaces.
Static Rope
Rope that will stretch a relatively short distance under load.
Poles attached to long extension ladders to assist in raising and steadying the ladder. Some poles are permanently attached, and some are removable. Also called Tormentor Poles.
Vertical member of a window sash.
Wood or metal pieces that prevent the fly section of a ladder from being extended too far.
Storz Coupling
Sexless coupling commonly found on large diameter hose.
A collection of fibers of string-like shape used to construct rope.
Settling of smoke at various vertical levels of accumulations or layers according to density of weight, the heaviest on the bottom.
Vaporization of a material from the solid to vapor state without passing through the liquid state.
Submersible Pump
Pump capable of operating while placed underwater.
(1) Low point of a tank at which the emergency valve or outlet valve is attached. (2) Area in the air purification system that receives drainage.
Individual responsible for command of a division/ group/sector.
Supply Hose
Hose between the water source and the attack pumper, laid to provide large volumes of water at low pressure. Also called Feeder Line.
Swivel Gasket
A gasket used to make a hose connection water tight when the male and female ends are connected.
Synergistic Effect
Phenomenon in which the combined properties of substances have an effect greater than their simple arithmetical sum of effects.
With, or using, the sense of touch.
A bolt or bar added to newer mortise locks which provide additional means, other than the latch, of holding the door closed.
Tank Baffle
Intermediate partial bulkhead that reduces the surge effect in a partially loaded liquid tank.
(1) Mobile water supply fire apparatus that carries at least 1,500 gallons of water and is used to supply water to fire scenes that lack fire hydrants. It is called a Tender in ICS terms. (2) In the ICS, it refers to a water-transporting fixed-wing aircraft.
Person(s) responsible for relaying incident information to companies.  Synonymous with Dispatcher.
Tempered Glass
Type of glass specially treated to become harder and more break-resistant than plate glass or a single sheet of laminated glass.
Term used within the incident command system for a mobile piece of apparatus that has the primary function of supporting another operation.
Tensile Stress
Stress in a structural member that tends to stretch the member or pull it apart.
Thermal Layering
(1) Tendency of gases to form into layers, according to temperature. (2) Process of burning in a confined space in which the hottest air is found at the ceiling and the coolest air at floor level.
Plastic that softens with an increase of temperature and hardens with a decrease of temperature but does not undergo any chemical change.
Threaded Coupling
Male or female coupling with a spiral thread.
Tie Rods
Metal rods running from one beam to the other.
Extreme top of a ladder. Also called Top.
Hinged devices by which staypoles are attached to a ladder.
Land surface configuration.
Combustible material, such as rolled rags, blankets, newspapers, or flammable liquid, used to spread fire from one point or area to other points or areas, often used in conjunction with an incendiary device.
Trench Ventilation
Strip or trench ventilation is the process of opening a roof area the width of the building with an opening 2 foot wide to channel out fire and heat.
System used for sorting patients to determine the order in which they will receive medical attention.
Truss Beam Construction
Beam construction type in which the beams consist of rails and truss blocks.
Truss Block
Used to separate the beams of a truss beam ladder. Also called Beam Block and Run Block.
Tying In
(1) Securing oneself to a ladder; accomplished by using a rope hose tool or belt or by inserting one leg between the rungs. (2) Securing a ladder to a building or object.
Upright Sprinkler
Sprinkler that sits on top of the piping and sprays water against a solid deflector that breaks up the spray into a hemispherical pattern that is redirected toward the floor.
Valve Key
Special key used to turn off water valves. Most also have an alternate key to open manhole covers.
Passage from a liquid to a gaseous state. Rate of vaporization depends on the substance involved, heat, and pressure.
Speed; the rate of motion in a given direction. It is measured in feet per second, miles per hour, and so on.
Systematic removal of heated air, smoke, and/or gases from a structure and replacing them with cooler and/or fresher air to reduce damage and to facilitate fire fighting operations.
Ventricular Fibrillation
Possible heart dysrhythmia associated with contacting an energized electrical source with the body.
Vertical Ventilation
Ventilating at the highest point of a building through existing or created openings and channeling the contaminated atmosphere vertically within the structure and out the top. Done with holes in the roof, skylights, roof vents, or roof doors. Also called Top Ventilation.
Voice Recorder
Method of recording emergency traffic for future review by using tape.
Walk In
Public Alerting System in which the person in need of emergency services notifies responders by walking into an fire station.
Water Chute
Object created with plastic sheeting or salvage covers which redirects water away from a structure to avoid water damage.  Sometimes used in conjunction with a Catchall.
Water Hammer
Force created by the rapid deceleration of water. It generally results from closing a valve or nozzle too quickly.
Water Shuttle
Operation in which tankers deliver water to a fire scene, generally in a rotating order.
Water Vapor
An invisible gas produced by heating water to it's boiling temperature (vaporization).  Also called Steam.
Wet Barrel Hydrant
Fire hydrant that has water all the way up to the discharge outlets. The hydrant may have separate valves for each discharge or one valve for all the discharges. This type of hydrant is only used in areas where there is no danger of freezing weather conditions.
Wet Water
Wetting agent that is introduced to water to reduce the surface tension and improve its penetration qualities.
Wildland Fire
Fire involving ground cover grass, brush, trees, and other vegetation. Also called Natural Cover Fire.
Wildland Urban Interface
Line, area, or zone where structures and other human development meet or intermingle with undeveloped wildland or vegetative fuels.
Side of the building the wind is striking.
Wood Frame Construction
Construction type in which exterior walls, bearing walls, floors, roofs, and supports are made partially or all of wood or other approved materials of smaller dimensions that heavy timber construction.
Working End
Part of the rope that is to be used in forming the knot. Also called Bitter End or Loose End.
Working Height
Length of a non-self-supporting ladder measured along the beams from the butt to the point of bearing at the top.  Also called Working Length.
The essential element in the formation of strands of rope.
Z Coordinate
Term used for the altitude of a caller obtained by telecommunicators.