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89 Cards in this Set

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[15] What was Lincoln's voting requirements in his original plan for Reconstruction?
Requirements for states to re-join with full voting power (not implemented due to assassination)
1. Slavery MUST be abolished
2. Education for former slaves
3. Ten percent plan - if 10% of eligible votes take union loyalty oath, state governments would form (male, white, 29 yrs)
Tennessee only state reconstructed with full voting power.
[15] What did Lincoln do to show tolerance to Southern states?
No execution of Confederates
Possibility of compensation to slave owners for loss of slaves
[15] How was the republican party divided?
(1) Moderate (conservative) view. (Lincoln's position, Reconstruction should be soft, shift, and mild)
(2) Radical view. (punish confederates, take away their voting rights and political power. Give full civil liberties to former black slaves, treat southerners like conquered people conquered land.
[15] Who were some prominent radicals?
1- Thadeus Stevens
2- Charles Sumner
3- Benjamin Wade
[15] How did Lincoln's assassination occur?
John Wilkes Booth, a 26 year old racist and Southern sympathizer shot Lincoln on April 14th, 1865 at Ford's Theater.
Possibility to be a larger plot to destroy US government. Changed future of reconstruction.
[15] What was Andrew Johnson's view for Reconstruction?
-He angered Radical Republicans
-He did not favor 13th Amendment which abolished slavery.
- He did not believe in racial equality, succession. He believed in state's rights.
- Pardoned confederates and allowed them to return to congress
- Vetoed Civil Rights bills
[15] What was Freemen's Bureau Extension Bill ?
Emergency Federal Assistance for War Refugees: (Money, Food, Court with no jury)
-Johnson considered it unconstitutional, vetoed it. New Freedmen's Bureau Bill written and vetoed again, but Congress overode the veto.
[15] What was the 14th Amendment?
Defined US citizens as anyone born or naturalized in the US.
Intended to protect blacks from "Black Codes" of south during reconstruction
Prohibits states from depriving life, liberty, or property without "due process"
[15] What did Johnson veto?
Bills that would have given blacks the right to own property and be witness in court. Also the Bureau Extension Bill.
[15] How did Republicans win BIG in congressional election in 1866?
House and Senate dominated by Republicans
Republicans insist reconstruction should be a Congressional issue.
Johnson wanted states to amend constitutions to repudiate slavery and secession
[15] What were the Congressional Reconstruction Acts of 1867?
- Created after GOP (Republican) victories in 1866 Congressional race
- Radical Republican Provision for Reconstruction.
1. Military Reconstruction Act
2. Command of the Army Act
3. Tenure of Office Act
4. Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
[15] What was the Military Reconstruction Act?
10 Southern states (excluding Tennessee) were carved into 5 military districts, which Johnson opposed
A union military commander ruled as "Governor".
[15] What was the Command of the Army Act?
An attachment to Army Appropriations Act
All presidential military orders must be cleared by the Commanding General C. Grant
(Johnson was removing military leaders who supported radical Republican reconstruction)
[15] What was the Tenure of Office Act?
Prohibited Johnson from removing any cabinet member without senate approval
Edwin Stanton, Secretary of War had been spying for radicals, and was fired by Johnson
Stanton refused to leave - he barricaded himself in his office for 2 months!
[15] How did the Impeachment of Andrew Johnson go?
Article of Impeachment was approved by House of Representatives in February of 1868 for Johnson's violation of"Tenure of Office Act"
US Senate voted 35-17 to remove him - just one vote shy of majority required.
He them remained president until March 1869.
[15] What is sharecropping?
After the Civil War, many black families lived on small plots of land they rented from farmer master
Some poor whites were also sharecroppers
Rent usually paid in crops
[15] What sort of economic issue was evident in sharecropping?
Since rent was paid in crops, and there wasn't much profit, social and economic mobility was highly unlikely (born a farmer, stay a farmer, etc. )
[15] What were some new terms coined in this era?
Copperhead - A northerner accused of supporting the confederacy (Mostly Democrats )
Scalawag - A white southern Republican during reconstruction
Carpetbagger - A norther who travels south
[15] What is a copperhead, scalawag, or carpetbagger?
Copperhead - A northerner accused of supporting the confederacy (Mostly Democrats )
Scalawag - A white southern Republican during reconstruction
Carpetbagger - A norther who travels south
[15] What was the predominant racist group during reconstruction?
KKK - Ku Klux Klan
Organized in 1866 in Tennessee as a men's club primarily of former confederates
Turn violent in late 1860s - targeting blacks and Scalawags.
Active in Southern Democratic part
[15] What does the "Solid South" refer to ?
The dominance of Democratic party in the south in the 19th century
[15] What was the desire of the White League?
To return the South to conditions in the antebellum era
[15] What happened regarding black education during Reconstruction?
Literacy rates rose among southern blacks
Booker T. Washington born into slavery, was the author of "Up From Slavery" - wanted to achieve integration of blacks learning vocational, tech skills for immediate employment. Administered Tuskegee Institute
Web Dubois - "The Souls of Black Folk", NAACP, Niagara Movement
[15] Who was Booker T Washington?
A black man born into slavery, who wrote "Up From Slavery" and wanted to educate blacks with vocation and tech skills for immediate employment
Administered Tuskegee Institute
[15] Who was Web, Dubois (1868 - 1963 ) ?
Harvard Educated Black Civil Rights leader who favored black equality through advanced education
He was critical of Booker T. Washington because he felt that his ideas were too slow
Formed the "Niagara Movement" in the 1905 to advance black freedom & equality
Led to NAACP in 1909 (Nation Associated for the Advancement of Colored People)
Wrote "The Souls of Black Folk"
[15] What religions were most popular among blacks during reconstruction?
Black Protestant denominations grew
National Baptist and African Methodist, Episcopal
[15] What happened regarding reconstruction after Johnson?
15th Amendment
US Grant Administration (1869 - 1877 )
Civil Rights Act of 1875
US Supreme Court Decision of 1883
[15] What was the 15th Amendment ?
Ratified in 1870
Legally enabled black men to vote! in all US elections
Often ignored due to poll taxes and literacy tests designed to block black men out =(
[15] What happened in the Election of 1868?
Grant (Republican) "Let us have peace" vs. Horatio Seymour (Democrat) "This is a white man's country"
[15] What issue during Grant's administration took time from other issues?
Scandals of Cabinet members
[15] What important civil rights record happened during 1871 ?
Sent US Marshals into South to find KKK
Signed KKK Act of 1871 which made KKK activities subject to Federal Prosecution
[15] What was the Civil Rights Act of 1875?
Introduced by Charles Sumner
Last piece of Civil Rights legislation passed by Congress until 1967
Signed into law by Grant
Prohibited racial discrimination in juries, transportation, places, and places of amusement
[15] What was the US Supreme Court Decision of 1883?
Upheld prohibition of racial discrimination on juries based on 14th amendment's "equal protection" clause
Struck down provisions pertaining to transportation and places of amusement
Sets up issue that leads into Plessy vs. Ferguson
Rules that legally mandated racial segregation is not necessarily violating the 14th amendment
"Separate but Equal"
[15] What was the "Stolen Election of 1876" ?
Republican Gov of Ohio Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Democratic Governor of New York Samuel Tilden
KKK intimidated southerners to vote for Tilden
Tilden wins Popular vote but only has 184 electoral (needs 185)
Votes disputed in SC, Florida, and Louisiana
US House of Reps Intervenes - 15 member panel of House, Senate, Supreme Court determine outcome - 8 for Hayes, 7 of Tilden. Hayes wins
[15] What was the Compromise of 1877?
In order to appease Democrats angry over the "stolen election"
Hayes advisers promise : Hayes will remove troops from South
Federal Aid for South
Federal Gov will not interfere with re-establishment of Southern white democrats in state political offices
Political Reconstruction ends!
[19] What were some problems for farmers in the late 19th century?
- Prices fell as demand decreased after the civil war
- High RR rate and RR monopolies (ate up profits!)
- Expensive and complicated machinery (more repairs)
- High bank mortgages , high interest rates
- Floods, droughts, unscientific farming practices (not rotating crops)
[19] What problems were caused by the more expensive and complicated machinery used for farming?
- High debt, loans w/ high interest, and bad relationships with bankers due to the costs of repairs and inability to pay bankers back
- 2 depressions within a 20 year period after the war
Technological unemployment
Overproduction!! Prices went down, and so did profits
[19] What were the main solutions to the farmer's problems?
-Grange movement
-Alliance movement
[19] What was the Grange movement?
-Started in 1867 by Oliver Hudson Kelley as "Patrons of Husbandry"
-Designed to give social outlet for farmers by giving dances, picnics, lectures, and organized with lodge "granges"
-had GRANGER LAWS to protect farmers : Munn vs. Illinois
[19] What was the ruling for Munn vs. Illinois? What was the significance?
1877. Supreme Court sided with the farmers and said states had the authority to make laws to regulate prices on private property / businesses if it is devoted to public use (ex: large grain elevators)
[19] What was the Alliance Movement?
Farmer owned cooperative created to save $ by buying large amounts of seed and fertilizer (buy in bulk!) and to reduce the cost of machinery, high interest rate through farmer's insurance.
[19] What was the impact of the Alliance movement?
Charles Macune's Southern Alliance in 1870 and National Farmer's alliance (1880) saved many farms
[19] Why were most Alliances local?
Most farmer problems were local. A farmer in CA growing different crop has little in common with a farmer growing cotton in the South.
[19] What was the non-Partisan league?
Part of the alliance which was strong in the Dakotas and Minnesota but moved in a more Radical direction
[19] Who was Mary E. Lease?
Woman farmer and lawyer who was convinced that farmers needed to get together to fight their collective enemies. (monopolies, RR, etc.)
Leading spokesperson in "Alliance Summer" of 1890 in Kansas for farmers alliances, union labor, Woman suffrage, and temperance
[19] What party is considered one the most if not THE most powerful 3rd parties in American history?
The Populist (or People's) Party, who grew out of Kansas People's part of 1890.
[19] What was the Populist party?
Grew out of Kansas's People's party of 1890. Became a national party in 1892.
Organized by Ignatius Donnely, Tom Watson, and "Sockless" Jerry Simpson
Donnely wanted to "restore govt to the hands of the people" - influenced by Mary Lease
[19] What were the Populist goals?
Unlimited coinage of silver (gold fluctuated more, and silver was more plentiful)
Increase $ supply (inflation -> counteract debt... but would this gain support for those NOT in debt?)
Direct election of senators
Income tax on graduated scale (mistake!)
Govt ownership of RR, telephone, telegraph (designed to protect ppl from monopolies, but leads to govt monopoly...)
[19] Did the Populist party accomplish their goals?
Eventually, there became direct election of senators, income tax, and govt ownership of RR.
Like many 3rd parties, eventually they died out after the 2 main parties adopted their ideals
[19] How did the Populist party go for Industrial Worker's support?
They desired an 8 hour work day, a restriction of "undesirables" in immigration (people considered to be "taking jobs"), ban on Pinkerton detectives
[19] How did the election of 1892 go?
Grover Cleveland (Democrat) vs Benjamin Harrison (Republican Incumbent, grandson of W.H. Harrison) vs James B. Weaver (Populist).
Cleveland - first man to be elected in two non-consecutive terms
[19] How did Populists do in the election of 1892?
Weaver won 1 million popular votes. Populism was strong in the West and Midwest, especially in rural farming regions
Gained 3 state governors
Weaver's anti-immigration and anti-semantic rhetoric cost some votes
Didn't gain black vote bc they did not reach out to them at all
[19] What was the Panic of 1893?
Terrible depression that hit the nation as farm prices dropped even more
In 1894 Congressional election, populists won about 40% of the vote as many were disillusioned w/ the main two parties
(3rd parties are usually strongest during bad times)
[19] How did the election of 1896 go?
William Jennings Bryan (Democrat) vs. William McKinley (Republican)
McKinley beat Bryan by being the less radical, unoffensive runner - beats Bryan again 4 years later. Populism declines on national level also.
[19] How did the Democratic campaign go in 1896?
William Jennings Bryan, presidential candidate was an amazing speaker, but he blasted too many people and was seen as too extreme. He blasted the gold standard, gave the "Cross of Gold" speech, and was the youngest presidential candidate - only 36 years old!
He was seen as the "Great Commoner" and opponents called him the "hayseed radical" = "hick"
[19] How did the Republicans go about their Campaign in 1896?
Instead of trying to fight Bryan through debates (not smart - Bryan was such a good speaker), they fought smarter.
McKinley supported the gold standard and ran a "Front Porch" campaign
He was supported (quietly) by Grover Cleveland - a Democrat.
Mark Hanna, his campaign manager would go to the mills and gain support intimately - no yelling out to the masses like Bryan. Distributed "What's the Matter w/ Kansas?" essay by William Allen White criticizing populists.
[19] Why did McKinley beat Bryan in the election of 1896?
Urban areas and industrial northeast felt alienated by Bryan's ideals and saw him as too extreme. (even states that he was supposed to have the support of )
McKinley ran a better campaign despite Bryan's speaking abilities
[19] What were the main causes of the Spanish - American War of 1898?
Imperialism - Extending rule over foreign countries
Revolt in Cuba
[19] What conflicts were there over Imperialism regarding Cuba?
Not supported by all - Democrats, for example, Bryan who said "The flag of a republic - forever! The flag of an empire - never!"
McKinley supported Imperialism with the belief in Missionary Diplomacy
Alfred Thayer Mahan's Book "Influence of Sea Power Upon History" advocated stronger navy - they listened to him
[19] What was the Cuba Libre movement?
A revolutionary movement under Jose Marti who desired Cuban independence. (Wanted to get out of Spanish rule, but didn't want to be under the US either)
[19] Why was Cuba important to Spain?
Spain had already recently lost a lot of land
Cuba had economic and agricultural importance (for Spain AND the US) for growing Sugar, Tobacco, and Coffee
[19] Who was Weyler?
Acting Gov / Gen sent by Spanish Government to deal with the revolution. Ruthless atrocities vs. Cubans (poisoned water, etc.) and was called "The Butcher" by US Press. This was an attempt for "psychological warfare" but failed - if anything, it intensified the revolt
[19] What is Yellow Journalism?
Sensationalized stories - Two main leaders were William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer (New York World)
[19] Who were the main two competitors in yellow journalism?
Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) and William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal)
[19] What was the de Lome letter and its significance?
de Lome, a Spanish ambassador wrote a private letter insulting McKinley, but it got into the wrong hands and was sold to Hearst who wrote a story about it
Still, McKinley wanted to avoid war, but de Lome, after news spread, resigned
[19] What happened with the USS Maine regarding the Spanish-American War?
They sent the ship to intimidate forces in Cuba, but instead, the ship exploded and killed 260 sailors. "Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain!" - however no one knows if it was sabotage or some other malfunction
[19] What was the Teller Amendment?
It prohibited American from annexing Cuba. It basically meant that there would be American presence in Cuba for our own protection - not necessarily war or an attempt to take it over. (Teller was unusual because he was a Republican but NOT an imperialist.)
[19] What controversial act did McKinley do regarding Cuba when Spain promised to leave it?
He ordered a naval blockade even though they promised to leave. Spain: "How dare you block our island?!" and declared war on the US (US declares war retroactively). McKinley ordered the blockade since he wasn't sure if they sincerely were going to leave.
[19] What was the result of the Spanish-American War?
US and Cubans defeated the Spanish quickly and soundly in just 4 months
(more deaths through disease / weather conditions than actual Spanish battle wounds)
[19] Who were two important war heroes coming out of the Spanish-American war?
George Dewey (Battle of Manila Bay) and Theodore Roosevelt (San Juan Hill) US army had only ONE casualty - and it wasn't even from battle
[19] What was interesting about black participation in the war?
1/4 of US soldiers were black - well above the US population average
[19] What did the US gain from the war?
Puerto Rico, Guam, Wake Island, and the Philippines
The US also became a bonafide world power
[20] What is progressivism?
Primarily urban reform movement,
Generally progressives were of a higher socio-economic class than populists, and wanted more regulation on capitalism - most didn't want socialism
[20] What were the main methods of progressive reform?
Muckraking, Social Work, Birth Control movement, Social gospel movement, Educational reform, Temperance, Woman's Suffrage, Gambling bans, and Wisconsin idea
[[20] What is muckraking?
Exposing corruption in books, journals, etc.
[20] What were the main topics in muckraking?
"Ladies Home Journal" exposed medical fraud
Ida Tarbell's "History of the Standard Oil Company" (went after monopoly of oil)
"The Jungle" exposed unsafe and unsanitary conditions of the meat packing industry (by Upton Sinclair)
[20] Who founded the "Hull House" and what was it?
Founded by Jane Adams in Chicago to assist the poor - had food and drink (no booze!) and even offered job placement service
[20] What was the birth control movement? Who was it founded by?
Marget Sanger, a New York City nurse who handed out birth control info in hopes to lighten the overcrowded urban areas (did not support abortion but wanted to prevent conception)
[20] What was the social gospel movement ?
A primarily liberal protestant attempt for churches to be more involved in urban, industrial, and moral reform.
Washington Gladden advocated "Applied Christianity" - applying 1st testament to current issues
Walter Rauschenbusch - "Christianity and the Social Crisis" which said if the church didn't get more involved, Communism and Socialism would take over
[20] Who was John Dewey and what was his place in progressivism?
Father of "Progressive Education" who emphasized child-centered education and "hands-on" education
"Learn by doing!"
[20] What is temperance? Who founded the WCTU (what does it stand for?)
WCTU - Women's Christian Temperance Union
Founded by Frances Willard
Anti-Saloon leagues
Temperance - no booze!
[20] Who led a protest rally of 5000 women at Wilson's 1913 inauguration?
Alice Paul
[20] What famous man believed in "hands-on" learning / "learn by doing"?
John Dewey
[20] What was the "Wisconsin idea"?
Robert "fighting Bob" La Folette's crusade to reform state politics
[20] What 4 amendments were added to the constitution after Progressivism?
16th Amendment - 1913 Federal Income Tax
17th - 1913 Direct Election of US Senators
18th - 1920 Prohibition of Alcohol (later nullified)
19th - 1920 Women voting in ALL US elections
[20] What was the 16th Amendment?
1913 Federal Income Tax
[20] What was the 17th Amendment?
1913 Direct election of US Senators
[20] What is the 18th Amendment?
1920 Prohibition of Alcohol (21st amendment nullified this )
[20] What is the 19th Amendment?
1920 Women voting in all elections