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42 Cards in this Set

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Benthic Sampling methds
-D-frame net
-Kick net
-RBPs (Rapid Bioassessment Protocols)
-Surber sampler (quantitative collections)
-Coring Devices (box correr for deep water)
-Benthic grabs (Ekman used in looser muddy sediments, freshwater; Ponar used for sand, gravel, denser packed sediments)
-Colonization Samplers (Hester-Dendy, Artificial Substrate Basket, Periphyton Sampler)
-Towed Epibenthic Saplers (Benthic Sled, Biological dredge, Otter trawl)
-Collection by Submersible (very deep sea)
Epifauna
- atop sediment, soft bottom or rocks, attached or free
-80% of larger zoobenthos, hard bottoms more diverse
Infauna
-live w/in sediment, mostly soft bottom
-mostly clams and polychaete worms
-burrow tubes for food scavaging and O2 supply
Epibenthos/ demersal animals
Live in association with seafloor but temporairily swim up into water (shrimp, prawns, cod, etc.)
Size classes of Benthos
1. Macrofauna:animals retained by 1mm seive, largest animals including: starfish, mussels, corals, sponges
2. Meiofauna:0.45 to 1mm, commonly found in mud, includes small mollusks, worms, copepods
3. Microfauna:smaller than 0.45mm, mostly protozoa, include: ciliates, thecate ameoba, foraminifera)
RPD (Redox potential discontinuity)
-oxygenated surface layer overlies anoxic muds
-RPD marks boundary between layers
Decay Process and POM viability
-C:N decreases with decay
-POM generally indigestable, thus associate microbes on POM main source of nutrition for deposit feeders
Benthic Feeding Mechanisms
1. Deposit feeder (either eat at surface (high )2, more digestibility) or deeper in substrate
2. Suspension feeder (eat floating material)
3. Grazers (eat gorwing on rocks/ other surfaces)
4. Predators (regulate community structre)
5. Symbiosis (animal/algae; animal/bacteria)
6. DOM uptake (found in all soft bodies marine inverts.
DOM transport across membrane
-transported by cotransport, travels with Na which is moved in by faciliated difusion
-animal must pump Na out to maintain conc. gradient to continue cotransport (uses ATP)
-found using oubain which shuts down ATP->ADP + P
Nonselective deposit feeders
-Arenicola sp.
-ingest sediment, expell unused particles
-bring O2 into burrow through funnel into otherwise anoxic muds
Selective Deposit Feeders
1. ex: Amphitrite sp.
-lays burrow w/ tenticle a surface
-takes small food particles along tenticles to mouth using cilia
-larger sediment paticles lost as passed over "humps" of tentacles
2. ex: Macoma sp.
-bivalve buried deep in sand
-extends lonh siphons to surface
-intake siphon covered with "screen" gills which filter sand particles out
-gills, 3 functions: current, O2 exchange, filtering
3. ex: Corophium volutator
-digs ditch, moves sediment past body
-ingests slower falling organic particles
Passive Suspension feeding
-rely on existing currents
- ex: anemones, corals, basket stars, hydriods, brittle stars -may or may not involve sieving
Active Suspension Feeding
- create current to draw food toards them
1. ex: parchment worm (creates current with modified peripoda, draws food into mucus sac
2. Bivalves
-generate water current with lateral cilia on gills
-U-lateral cilia beat against current to capture food particles
-Frontal cilia carry trapped particles to mouth
Barnacles
- can be active or passive dpending on environment
-can pulse tentacles
Benthic Herbivores/ grazers
1. ex: chitons: use radula for grazing
2. ex: Urchins: use Artistole's lantern to scape algae or rip seaweed
3. ex: parrot fish: specialize mouth to scrape algae from rocks and corals
4. ex: Nereid polychaetes: tear apart sea lettuce
Benthic Predators
-Dog whelk (large gastropod)
-Portunid crab
Measuring Tides
1. Tide Staff
2. Float and Stilling well
3. Sonar
4. Pressure
Astronomical Tides
caused by graviational attraction of objects in space (moon primarily, sun also)
Meterological tides
caused by weather
Hide Tide opposing moon
-cause by water inertia due to earth spinning, water continues outward as earth spins counter clockwise (to east)
-all water wants to travel to this point, moon's gravity prevents it
Types of daily tides
Semidiurnal: typical tide, 2 high, 2 low
Diurnal: water trapped, 1 high, 1 low
Mixed Tide: still semidiurnal, but 1 high, 1 low, 1 high low, 1 low high daily
Tides and lattitude
Range of tides greater at higher latitudes, minimized at low latitudes due to earth's tilt on axis
Littoral Zone
intertidal zone, art that is partially submerged/ exposed between spring high and low tides
Midlittoral zone
area between neap high and neap low, always partially submerged/ exposed daily
Intidal inhabitants
-cheifly marine rather than terrestrial
- species richness greater lower in intertidal
- upper intertidal most stressful
Physical Stresses on Intertidal
1. Temp
2. Dessication
3. Reduced O2
4. Wave action
Dessication: gastropod adaptation
-seal shell with operculum
- use anaerobic metabolism
-keep constant supply of NAD to accept H ions from Krebs cycle to produce limited ATP
Dessication: limpet adaptation
- seal shell to substrate
-anaerobic metabolism: creates acids, use acid to create perfect hole on rock for tight sealing
- mucus trail to find "home scar" when tide recedes
Dessication: soft-bodies invertebrate adaptation
-contract, use crevices (last place to dry)
-cover body with mucus
Dessication: macroalgae
-fleshy algae (fucus sp.) can survive considerable drying
-less substantial algae (sea lettuce) can not - found lower in intertidal
Reduced O2
-ex: barnacles: gape slightly and use atmospheric O2 at surface
-ex: buried worms: use respiratory pigments
-hemoglobin (Fe), hemocyanin (Cu), and chlorocruorin (Cu)
Temperature
-color: white, reflects more light
-texture: bumps, give off more heat
Wave Action
-burrowing: razor clams, Donax sp.
-"Swash riding": Emertia sp., crab uses movement sediment by waves to stay where waves are breaking, moves up and down beach w/ waves
ex: Littorina nertoides: climbs rock until out of tidal zone, crawls into crevice
Beach Zonation
White: most terrestrial, only wet few times/ yr when storms and spring tides
Gray: upper edge of intertidal, upper portion wet 1-2 days every 2 weeks
Black: caused by dried algae, wet consistently w/ spring tides, dry during neap
Yellow: true intertidal, area between neap high and neap low
Lower PLatform: almost always submerged, exposed only during spring low
Species Zonation
-upper limit determined by tolerance to physical factors (temp, dessication, etc.)
-lower limit determined by biological factors (competition, predation)
Keystone Species: Top-down control
Large, dominant predator responsible for species diversity/ community structure
-Pisaster sp. in Coastal Washington studies by Paine
-only found if food web relatively simple, one top predator with only one or two below it
Environmental Effects of Aquaculture
1. Biological Pollution
2. Feeder fish
3. Organic Pollution/ Eutrophication
4. Chemical Pollution
Biological Pollution
-release of farmed fish, their parasites or pathogens into water
-can swamp natural pops due to such consentrted large pops of farmed fish
-1/4 mill escaped salmon since mid 90's, competing w/ natural species (Atlantic Salmon)
-transgenic fish can: grow faster, parasite resistance, temp tolerance
Feeder Fishes
-wild caught fish used to make feed for farmed fish
-1lb feeder fish = 0.1 lb growth of eater fish
harvesting so many bait fish that wild pops have difficulty finding prey
Organic Pollution/ Eutrophication
-much of nutrients eaten by fish released into water
-Porphyra: used as biological filter downstream
Chemical Pollution
-pesticides, hormones, antibiotics, mineral, pigments, vitamins, anestetics
-few medicines used
Needed Improvements
-Increased regulation
-Protect native species
-Provide $$ for water quality improvements
-Fund research of sustainable production
-develop regulations regarding introduced species
-Develop siting/ permitting system for offshore cages
-Develop "organically grown" standards
-Develop guidelines for environmentally sound fish culture and inform public