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63 Cards in this Set

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What is Ionization energy?
the amount of energy needed to remove an outer electron from a specific atom or ion ints ground state and in the gas state
decreases across the periodic table
What is electron affinity?
the energy emitted upon the addition of an electron to an atom or group of atoms while in the gas phase.
e.g. Na-------> Na+~loses electron---->Na+ +e-
How do we know a reaction is exothermic or endothermic?
the energy is released or absorbed
When do you do redox problems?
you look at both reactants and products to figure out who gained and lost electrons.
WHAT ARE THE FIVE RULES FOR ASSIGNING OXIDATION NUMBERS?
1)SIMPLE IONS HAVE AN OXIDATION # = TO THEIR CHG
2)HYDROGEN=+1
3)OXYGENS OX # 1S-2
4)THE SUM OF THE OX # IN A POLYATOMIC ION MUST = THE TOTAL CHG OF THE POLYAT ION AND THE SUM OF A P.A. AND THE COMPOUND MUST = 0
5)WHEN SOLVING FOR OX #'S DO THE ATOMS YOU KNOW FIRST THEN SOLVE FOR THE UNKNOWN
WHAT IS ELECTRON AFFINITY?
ENERGY RELEASED WHEN AN ATOM ACCEPTS AN ELECTRON
WHAT KIND OF ATOMS ARE HELD TOGETHER BY ATTRACTION B/W OPPOSITLY CHARGED IONS
IONIC CMPDS
WHAT KIND OF ATOMS ARE HELD TOGETHER BY SHARED ELECTRONS?
COVALENT COMPOUNDS
WHAT IS COMPOSED OF ONLY ONE ATOM?
AN ELEMENT
WHAT IS THE AVG DISTANCE B/W TWO BONDED NUCLEI?
BOND LENGTH
WHAT KIND OF BOND HOLDS ATOMS TOGETHER?
CHEMICAL BONDS
COVALENT
WHAT ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF IONIC BONDS?
E'- TRANSFERRED
SEPERATE ORBITALS
ATTR BY OPP IONS
IONS ARE FULLY CHGED
ELECTRONEGATIVITY IS HIGH TUG OF WAR
WHAT ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF COVALENT BONDS?
HELD TOGETHER BY SHARED ELECTRONS
E- ARE SHARED
ORBITALS OVERLAP
EN DIFF IS LOW TUG OF WAR
NON METALS AND NONMETALS
POLAR /NONPOLAR
UNEQUAL/EQUAL
DELTA +OR DELTA-
PARTIALCHG ON POLAR ATOMS
WHY ARE PARTIAL BONDS ESTABLISHED?
BECAUSE ATOMS IN THE BOND HAVE DIFF EN VALUES EN IS THE STRENGTH OF THE ATOM AND HOW MUCH PULL IT HAS ON THE SHARED E- IN A BOND
IN POLAR BONDS
Why does an atom with a higher en diff get a partial chg?
it pulls the e- toward itself
what is the degree of polarity?
range of polarity in bonds is the diff of strength or EN the more polar a bond is the closer it is to ionic
the _____ polar bonds are the ______similar to they are nonpolar bonds.
less
more
what was the purpos of the chem bonds lab?
to determine the mp, solubility, conductivity and determine if the substance si ionic or covalent
What is solubility?
the abilty of one substance to dissolve in another
What is a solvent?
a dissolving agent
what is a solute?
a substance that has been dissolved
How do substances dissolve?
substances dissolve in each other when they are highly attracted to one another.
what are the six factors that afffect solubility?
temperature,amount, agitation, duration, polarity and the type of substance
What are the char of a ionic bond?
conductive
insoluble in ETOH and HEX
soluble inH2 O
high MP
have chgs
high EN diff
solids- all
what are char of covalent bonds?
not conductive
two types: polar and nonpolar
low mp
soluble in ETOH and HEX
low en diff
can exist as solid liquid and gas
weakest of all
What are multiple bonds?
in covalent molecules atoms can share more than one pair of e-, 2 or 3 pairs
What is a double bond?
two atoms that share two pairs of e-
drawn with two dashes, ea dash reps one bond
C=O
What is a molecule?
has a positive and a neg end
What is a dipole?
a molecule in which one end has a partial pos chg and the other end is partially neg; a molecule that contains more than one polar bond cancels the other out
How do molecules and dipoles differ?
they melt at lower temps than ionic molecular substances and are more likely ot ne solids, liquid or gases
What is a polar molecule?
a molecule that has oppositly chg ends
What is a nonpolar molecule?
amolecule wiht the same chg on both ends
What makes substances soluble and unsoluble?
the attr btwn molecules must be present to make the substances dissolve
What are IMFs?
forces btwn molecules
What holds molecules together?
bonds that hold two atoms together and are permanent
What are London Dispersion Forces?
They occur in nonpolar molecules(no pull)
nonpolar molecules have one chg throughout the molecule.
What is an instantaneous dipole?
is formed when opp chg form on a molecules for an instant and attract the molecules return to orginal state and repel
DIPole dipole
THE IMFS SHORT STYLE
LONDON DISPERSION
NONPOLAR
DIPOLEOPP CHG ON MOL POLAR
HYDROGEN ATTR, REPEL INST
WHAT IS A hydrogen bond?
hydrogen atoms attr to partially neg atoms in the opp molecules for a small moment in time hydrogen atms for an instant bond with the neg atom
Why do hydrogen bonds occur?
because it has only one proton and e- when it forms a bond its e- is spending much more time with the other atom
What imf is the strongest?
dipole dipole
When do imfs occur?
london forces- by themselves btwn themselves
dipole dipole- occur in polar molecules the stronger the polar the stronger the dipole
h bonds occur in polar molecules with hydr
How do you calculate if a molecule is polar or nonpolar?
clculate the en diff
draw delta symbols
look at overal distribution of delta symbols
What is resonance?
when multiple bonds switch sides within the molecule
double arrow
What are the prefixes for polyatomic ions?
mono, di, tri, tetra,penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca
What are the rules for polyatomic ion lewis structure?
all other structure steps apply
when we have a neg chg p.a ion we add e-, to the valence
What is a chemical reaction?
a chg in the distribution or electrons as the reactants combine to form ions.
What are the rules for naming rules for inorganic cmpds?
use prefixes on root to tell # of atoms in cmpd
if mon in the first word leave it out
use in second word
the first element in formula is the first to name
What is organic chemistry?
the study of life and organic compounds
What are organic compounds?
they are produced by living things to support life; must be carbon containing but not all carbon containing cmpds are organic
some carbon containing cmpds are organic
i.g. CO2 and CO-oxides
CO3 2 - carbonates
What are the three types of organic cmpds?
alkanes, alkenes and alkynes
What is an alkane?
all contain only C-C carbon single bonds ending in ane
ig octane C8 H18, hexane C6 H14

formula= Cn(H2n+2)
What is an alkene?
all end in ene
must contain one double bond
Cn H2n
What are alkynes?
end in yne
must contain at least one triple bond
Cn(H2n-2)
what is the diff btwn saturated and unsatured fats?
saturated fats are coverdin hydrogen
unsaturated fats are hydrocarbons with multiple bonds
What are functional groups?
they are attached to hydrocarbons and are groups of atoms that give phys& chem properties to organic groups
What are aldehydes?
O double bonded to H with R
eg formaldehyde
What are Ketones?
R-C=O
I
O
H2O SOLUBLE
HIGH MELTING POINTS AND BOILING PTS
EG ACETONE
What is a carboxylic acid?
weak, similar to alcohol
contains
naming- add ic to acid
eg acetic acid
occurs in analgesics
very polar high boiling pt
exhibit hydrogen bonding
not changed in h2o
O
II
C

R O H
What are ethers?
R- O-R
alkyl alkyl ether
form peroxides- explosive
interior ot
anesthetic
What are alkines?
R- NH2
R2- NH
R3- N
High MN
absorbed through siki
low polarity
toxic
What are esters?
carboxylic acid+ alcohol
O double bonded to Carbon and Oxygen
add oate naming
smell and taste pleasant
fruity
What are alcohols?
R-OH
name add -ol
low boiling/ freezing---> water soluble
acidic