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189 Cards in this Set

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Experimental group
Group used in an experiment where the variable is manipulated
Control group
Group in an experiment where the variable used is not maniplulated.
Dependant variable.
The variable that is observed.
Independent variable
Variable that is manipulated
Name some important aspects about the Mitochondria
-"powerhouse of cell"
-produces nearly all of the ATP required for cellular work
-most numerous organelle
-has two membranes: inner, highly folded, cristae
-have their own circular DNA and produce some of their own proteins
Name some important aspects about the ribosomes
-site of translation
-complex of DNA and RNA
-may be 'free' or 'membrane bound'
Name some important aspects about the endoplasmic reticulum
-sheet of membrane enclosing a complex interconnected network of cavities and channels
-continuous with the nuclear membrane
Name some important aspects about the rough E.R.
-An E.R. sudded with ribosomes; protein synthesis
-modifies proteins that need modification; especially ones being exported to organelles or out of cell
Name some important aspects about the smooth E.R.
-free of ribosomoes
-metabolism of lipids
Name some important aspects about the protesomes
-degrade old proteins and recycle the amino acids
Name some important aspects about the cytoplasm
-all cellular material outside of the nucleus but inside of the plasma membrane
Name some important aspects about the cytosol
-part of the cytoplasm that is not contained within the membrane-bound organelles
What is the cell theory?
1. all livin organisims are composed of cells
2. cell is the basic structural unit of life
3. new cells come from preexisting cells through division
Name the three basic parts of a cell
1. plasma membrane
2. genetic information
3. cytoplasm
Who was Robert Hooke?
-perfected the compound microscope
-he observed cork
-coined the term 'cell'
Who was VanLeeuwenhoek?
-amateur lens maker
-1st to observe living cells
-called cells "animacules"
Name some important aspects about the golgi complex
-flat membranous disks
-modifies glycoproteins
Name some important aspects about the lysosome
-contains 40 different enzymes that break down proteins, nucleic acids, sugars and lipids
-specialized vesicle
-numerous in phagocytes
Describe phagocytosis
-the process by which cells ingest and digest large particles of food
Define: chromosomes
-threads of DNA and proteins that carry the genetic information
Name some important aspects about cell division:
- the nucleus divides so each daughter cell gets hald of the replicated nuclar materials
How many sets chromosomes does the human cell have?
23
How do prokaryotes divide?
-process called binary fission
Define: binary fission
-cell pinches into two cells
Define: Eukaryotes
-cells contain membrane bound nucleus and organells
-humans
Define: Prokaryotes
-cells do not carry membrane-bound organelles and nucleus
Define: Homologous chromosomes
-paired chromosomes
How many pairs of chromosomes does a diploid have?
2
How many pairs of chromosomes does a haploid cell have?
four
Define: mitosis
-the division of the nucleus
Define: cytokinesis
-division of the cytoplasm and formation of two separate plasma membranes
Name the five phases of mitosis:
Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase
Define: cytokenesis
process by which a dividing cell partitions its cytoplasm and organelles into two daughter cells
-separate from mitosis
(mitosis)
What happens during Prophase?
-chromatin relax (diffuse)
-chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes
-nucleoli disappears
-mitotic spindles develop outside the nucleus
(mitosis)
What happens during Prometaphase:
-nuclear membrane disappears
-chromosomes attach to miotic spindles at the centromere
-chromosomes start to move toward the cell equator
(mitosis)
What happens during Metaphase:
-chromosomes align along cell's equator in a single plane
(mitosis)
What happens during Anaphase:
*cytokenesis begins
-chromosomes separate more in opposite directions away from the metaphase plate (center)
(mitosis)
What happens during telephase:
*cytokenesis ends
-chromosomes addume the appearance of chromatin
-nucleoli reappear
-nuclear membrane forms around chromatin
Define: meiosis
process that distributes one haploid set of chromosomes to each of the four germ cells produced from one original diploid cell
True or false: haploid cells come from diploid cells via mitosis
False: meiosis (GERM cells)
What are all non-germ cells called
Somatic (body) cells
Define: fertilization of gametes
-the union of two haploid gametes forming a diploid cell called a zygote
Define: zygote
a fertilized cell
What is Meiosis I also refered to?
Reduction division
What is Meiosis II also referred to as?
Equational division (replicating haploids)
True or false: DNA replication occurs before the 1st division but not before the 2nd division?
True
Name the four stages of Meiosis I
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase
(meiosis)
What happens during prophase I?
Homologous chromosomes form pairs
-synapsis: alignment of the homologuous chromosome pairs
-crossing over: homologous chromosomes break and exchange similar pieces forming new combinations of genes
(meiosis)
What happens during prophase I?
Homologous chromosomes form pairs
-synapsis: alignment of the homologuous chromosome pairs
-crossing over: homologous chromosomes break and exchange similar pieces forming new combinations of genes
(mitosis)
What happens during Metaphase I?
-each tetrad migrates to the cell equator
(mitosis)
What happens during Anaphase I?
-sister chromatids go to the same pole
(mitosis)
What happens during Telephase I
-cell goes telephase I and cytokenesis quickly and right into Mitosis II
Define: Meiosis II
separates the sister chromatids so that each chromosome of the daugter cells consist of a single chromatid
(mitosis)
What happens during Anaphase II:
-separates the sister chromatids so that each chromosome of the daughter cells consist of a single chromatid
Define: Aneuploid
-a cell/organism with abnormal number of chromosomes
Define: Euploid
a cell/organism with a normal # of chromosomes
Define: disjunction
-when the homogolous chromosomes separate
Define:Nondisjunction
-when separation doesn't occur normally
Define: autosomes
All other chromosomes other than the X or Y chromo
How many pairs of autosomoes do humans have?
22
How many pairs of sex chromosomes do humans have?
one
True or false: "Y" chromosomes carry far fewer genes than the "X" chromosome?
True
True or false: egg and sperm are haploid?
True
How many sperm are produced from a germ cell?
Four
How many eggs are produced from a germ cell?
One, and one polar body
Define: cervix
lower part of the uterus and acts as a passage from vagin to uterus
Define: fallopian tubes
-the oviducts, or where the oocyte finds its way after being released from the follicle
Define: uterus
Female organ used to nourish zygote
Define: Urethra
-carries urine from the bladder
-exit tube in men surrounded by spongy, cylindrical tissue forming the glans
Define: testes
Male reproductive gland that produces sperm
List some of the characteristics regarding the 1st Trimester of pregnancy
-fatigue and nausea
-glucose and calcium redirected from mom to fetus
-metabolism increases
List some of the characteristics regarding the 2nd Trimester of pregnancy
-abdomen swells
-energy increases, morning sickness ends
-fetus kicks
List some of the characteristics regarding the 3rd Trimester of pregnancy
-frequent urination
-leg numbness
-poor sleep
-fetus pushes on internal organs
Define: colostrum
-similar to milk, but has less fat and high in antibodies
Define: allele
-alternate versions of the same gene
Define: gene
a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located in the germ plasm usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material
instructions for making a certain protein
Define: Homozygous
-two copies of the SAME allele
Define: Heterozygous
-two different alleles for a single gene i.e. Tt
Define: genotype
-the actual genes present in the cells of an organism
Define: phenotype
The expression of the genes creating an observable trait
When is a gene recessive?
When it contributes nothing to the phenotype of a heterozygote
Define: Homeostasis
a relatively stable state of equilibrium
Define: codominance
-when two alleles each contribute to the phenotype
Define: linkage map (group)
-sets of genes that do not independently assort
Define: recombination
-results in new chromosome with some genes from each of the parental homologus
Who were Watson and Crick?
-discovered the structure of DNA
-model
-sugar-phosphate backbone on the outside
-nitrogen bases on the inside
What are the three components of a nucleotide?
phosphate,nitrogen and sugar
What is the basic building block of DNA and RNA?
-nucleotide
What is the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?
DNA-RNA----Proteins
Define: Translation
-is the copying of DNA into RNA, occurs in the nucleus
Define: Transcription
-used RNA to direct the synthesis of protein, occurs in the cytoplasm
Define: mRNA
Messenger RNA-carries the genetic instructions from DNA to the ribosome
Define: tRNA
Transfer RNA: carries the animo acid to the complimentary mRAN codon at the ribosome
Define: rRNA
Ribosomal RNA: part of the ribosome and it's involved with forming the peptide bond between growing "protein" and the next amino acid
Define: Intron and extron
the removal of large pieces of RNA (intervening sequences; intron) and splicing the remainders (expressed sequences; extron) into mRNA
Define: codon
sequence of three nitrogen bases
Describe the four types of gene regulation:
1. Transcriptional control: increase or decrease the amount of mRNA
2. Posttranscriptionl control: mRNA transcribed, but regulates the modification of pre-mRNA
3. Translational control: regulates the rate of translation
4. Posttranslational control: polypeptide needs modification to become functional protein
Define: mutagen
-permanent change to a DNA sequence
Complimentary base pairing:
C-G
A-T
(RNA) A-U
Purine:
double ringed H-bases (A and G)
Pyrimidine:
Single ringed N-base (C,T,U)
Bolus:
A soft mass of chewed food
Chyme:
the semifluid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
Vitamins:
any of various organic substances that are essential in minute quantities to the nutrition of most animals and some plants
Minerals:
Inorganic substance needed in small amounts in the body
Cartilage:
cushions the joint
Ligaments:
attach bone to bone and around the joint
Tendon:
attach muscle to bone
Plasma:
fluid part of blood
Erythrocytes:
red blood cells
Leukocytes:
white blood cells, contribute to the body's defense against infection and tumors
Platelets:
small cell fragments that help blood coagulate
Hemoglobin:
An oxygen binding protein whose iron containing heme groups are red when O2 is attached
Pericarduim:
fibrous sac surrounds the heart and baths it in a lubricating fluid
Myocardium:
muscular wall of the heart (4 chambers)
Systolic blood pressure:
the highest number and occurs when the ventricle contracts
Diastolic blood pressure:
lowest, occurs when heart is relaxed
True or false: the contraction period of the heart is the systole?
True
Aorta:
Largest vessel, artery that carries blood from left ventricle to rest of the body
Ventricle:
thicker walled sending chamber
Cardiovascular
involving the heart and blood vessles
Pulmonary circulation:
carries blood without oxygen from the heart to the lungs
Systematic circulation:
delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body
Axon:
long appendage that transmits a signal
Dendrites:
shorter, more numerous appendages that receive signals from other cells
Synapse:
space between nerve cells
Thalamus:
Located in the forebrain, major integrator of sensory information about the external world
Substantia nigra:
Located in the midbrain, important for initiating movements
Diencephalon:
Located in the forebrain, contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus
Pons:
link information passing between the brain and spinal cord
Medulla:
also contains the "centers" that regulate breathing and blood circulation
Amygdala:
coordinates autonomic responses to emotional states
Reflexive memory:
has reflex like quality, automatic, not dependent on awareness
Declarative memory:
recalled through thought or experience
Who was Charles Darwin:
Developed theory of natural selection, evolutionary theory, "descent with modification"
Who was Louis Pasteur
founder of microbiology
designed simple experiment disproving spontaneous generation
concluded: all life comes from existing life
List the types of reproductive isolations:
1.Ecological isolation-how species live
2. temporal-when they reproduce
3. behavioral-mating behaviors
4. mechanical-do not have complementary male and female reproductive organs
5. gametic-gametes aren't compatable
What is the proper way to write scientific names?
(italicised) Homo sapien
Who was Carl Linneus:
designed a taxonomic heirarchy for the classification of life
Name the three bacterial cell shapes:
Baccili-rod shaped
Cocci-spherical
Spirilla-spiral shaped
Who is Carl Woese?
From the U of I; lef to the recognition of archea as a separate domain of life
Name some aspects of chrysophytes:
(golden algae and diatons)
-most commmon in temperate lakes and ponds as plankton
-diatons are some of the most numerous and attractive chrysophytes composed of silica
Name some aspects of parasitic protozoans:
1.complex life cycles
2. plasmodia causes malaria
Name the technical name for vascular plants:
Tracheophytes-includes all the most familiar living plants; not restricted in size
Name the technical name for non-vascular plants:
Bryophytes:include the mosses,liverworts and hornworts. Anchor to surfaces by special "rootlike" structures
Define: rhizoid
root-like structure of Bryophytes, not designed for absorption of water
Name aspects of Tracheophytes:
subdivided into:seedless and seed plants
-diploid sporophytes are dominant
-transport of water involves the xylem and the phloem
Name aspects of the Bryophytes:
most prominent phase of the life cycle is the haploid gametophyte which produce the gametes via mitosis
-require freestanding water for photosynthesis and fertilization by free-swimming sperm
Xylem:
carries water and minerals from the root to the leaves for use in photosynthesis
Phloem:
distributes the sugars and other organic compounds made in the leaves to the rest of the plant
Angiosperm:
produce seends with fruits and flowers
Gymnosperm:
conifers,cycads,ginkos,gnetae-produce seends without flowers or fruits
Photosynthesis:
synthesis of chemical compounds with the aid of radiant energy and especially light
Blastula:
hollow ball of cells that developes from the fertilization of a eumetazoa
Endoderm:
innermost layer of cell, gives rise to the intestines and other digestive organs
Mesoderm:
the middle layer of cell, gives rise to the intestines and other digestive organs
Ectoderm:
outermost layer, gives rise to the skin, sense organs and nervous system
List the three order of reptiles:
Crocodilia:crocodiles and aligators
Chelonia-turtles and tortoises
Squamata:lizards
Hyphae:
thread-like filaments which contain many nuclei-composition of fungi
Endosymbiosis:
a close association of two organisims, which one lives inside the other, mutually beneficial
Endosymbiosis:
a close association of two organisims, which one lives inside the other, mutually beneficial
Macroevolution:
the orgin and multiplication of species
Population genetics:
explains in mathematical terms the process by which variation is generated and passed on within populations of organisms
Microevolution:
comparatively minor evolutionary change involving the accumulation of variations in populations usually below the species level
Transpiration:
passage of watery vapor from a living body through a membrane or pores
Nuceloid:
the DNA-containing area of a prokaryotic cell
Antibiotics:
chemicals that kill the bacterial cells without harming our own
Plasmid:
smaller loop of DNA in prokaryotes
Endotherm:
maintain constant body temperature by capturing the heat released by metabolism and releasing heat from their bodies (birds and mammals)
Ectotherm:
reptiles,depend on external sources of heat
Three types of animal defenses:
1. camoflogue
2. chemical defenses
3. coloration
How do humans alter the carbon and nitrogen cycles?
fertilizers, burning of fossil fuels
Symbiosis:
two species have intimate associations
Parasitiism:
species benefits at expense of other species
Mutialism:
symbiotic relatonship between two species that mutually benefit
Commensalism:
intimate relationship btwn two species that neither helps not harms
Primary succession:
invasion of a completely new environment
Secondary succession:
invasion of an environment which contains a previous community that has suffered damage
Pioneer community:
part of 1st succession
Climax community:
Long lived and occurs at the end of a succession, low rate of change
Biotic:
living
Abiotic:
non-living
Herbivore:
gets source of energy from plant matter
Carnivore:
gets energy from both plant and other organisms
Scavengers
get energy from carcases of other organisms
Decomposers:
dead organisms
Food chain:
linear sequence of "who eats who"
Food "web"
collection of interconnected food chains in an ecosystem
Cloaca:
the common chamber into which the intestinal, urinary, and generative canals discharge in birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes