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81 Cards in this Set

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asymptomatic
without symptoms
defecation
elimination of feces from the gastrointestinal tract through the rectum
duodenal bulb
upper duodenal area just beyond the pylorus
endoscope
intrument consisting of a rigid or flexible fiberoptic tube and optical system for observing the insde of a hollow organ or caity
exocrine
pertaining to a gland that excretes outwardly through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel
friable
easily broken or pulverized
pepsin
enzyme secreted in the stomach that begins the digestion of proteins
punctate
having pinpoint punctures or depressions on the surface; marked with dots
varices
tortuous dilations of a vein
sphincter
circular muscle constricting an orifice, such as the pyloric sphinctter around the openinf of the stomach into the duodenum
oral
concerning the mouth
stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth
glossectomy
excision of the tongue
cheiloplasty
surgical repair of a defected lip
labial
concerning the lips
gingivectomy
excision of diseased gingival tissue in surgical treatment of periodontal disease
sialolith
calculus formed in a salivary gland or duct
pylorospasm
involuntary contraction of the pyloric sphincter of the stomach, as in pyloric stenosis
jejunorrhaphy
suture of the jejunum
ileostomy
creation of an opening between the ileum and the abdominal wall
sigmoidotomy
incision of the the sigmoid colon
rectocele
herniation of the rectum
hepatomegaly
swelling of the liver
pancreatolysis
destruction of the pancreas by pancreatic enzymes
cholangiole
small terminal portion of the bile duct
cholelith
gallstone
choledochoplasty
wsurgical repair of the common bile duct
hyperemesis
excessive vomiting
cholelithiasis
presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
dyspepsia
epigastric discomfort felt after eating, also called indigestion
anorexia
without appetite r3esulting in inability to eat
aerophagia
swallowing of air
postprandial
after a meal
steatorrhea
excessive amount of fat discharged in fecal matter
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
ascites
accumulation of serous fluid in the abdomen
borborygmus
rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and cuased by the passage of gas through the liquid contents pf the intestine
cachexia
general lack of nutrition and wasting occurring in the course of a chronic disease or emotional disturbance
Chrohn Disease
regional eneteritis
chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly not affecting any portion of the intestinal tract
cirrhosis
chronic irreversible degenerative disease of the liver
colic
spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ accompanied by pain, especially in the colon
deglutition
act of swallowing
persitalsis
coordinated rhythmic contractions that propel food through the GI tract
mastication
chewing, process in which food is mashed by teeth and broken down by saliva
colic
spasm of any hollow or tubular soft organd accompanied by pain, especially in the colon
deglutition
act of swallowing
dysentery
inflammation of the interstin, especially the colon, possibly caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites that results in bloody diarrhea
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing or eating
eructation
producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characterisitv sound - belching
fecalith
fecal concretion
flatus
gas in the GI tract; expeilling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
halitosis
bad breath
hematememis
vomiting of blood
obstipation
intestinal obstruction; also called severe constipation
irritable bowel syndrome
IBS
sumptom comples marked by abdomnal pain and altered bowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or alternation of the two) for which no organic caused can be determined
spastic colon
melena
passage od dark colored tarry stools due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
regurgitation
backward flowing as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach or the backward of blood through a defective heart valve
liver function tests
tests involving measurement of the levels of certain enzymes, bilirubin and various proteins
stool guaiac
applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect the presence of blood in the feces; also called Hemoccult
serum bilirubin
measurement of the level of bilirubin in the bllod
upper GI endoscopy
visual examination of the eosphagus, stomach, and duodenum
lower GI endoscopy
endoscopy of the colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anal canal
barium enema
upper GI series
radiographic exmaination of the rectum and colon following enema adminstration of a barium sulfate into the rectum
barium swallow
lower GI series
radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following an oral administration of barium sulfate
anastomosis
surgical joining of two duxts, vessel,s or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other
lithotripsy
procedure for elimination a stone within the urinary system or gallbladder by crushing the stone surgically or using a noninvasive method
anatacids
neutralized stomach acid
antidiarrheals
control loose stools, relieve diarrhea
antiemetics
control nausea and vomiting
antispasmodics
decrease gastrointestinal spasm
laxative
treat constipation
surfactant
lipoprotein that contributes to lungs elasticity and decareases surface tension
sputum
secretions produced in the lungs andbronchi that are expelled by coughing and may contain pathological elements
respiratory failure
inability of the cardiac and pulmonary systems to maintain an adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxidein the lungs
asphyxia
condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
Cheyne-Sotkes respiration
death breathing
repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration
compliance
ease with which lung tissue can be stretched
coryza
head cold, upper respiratory infection
finger clubbing
enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, commonly associated with pulmonary disease
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing