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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
many wives, the practice of a man having multiple wives.
many husbands,female forming a sexual union between more than one male.
term of a thrid gender, usually implies a masculine spirit and a feminine spirit living in the same body.
The Nuer Marraige Patterns
They practice Bridewealth
is an amount of money or property or wealth paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter.
is a gift of money or valuables given to the family of the bridegroom by the family of the bride at the time of their marriage.
is a type of marriage in which a woman marries one of her husband's brothers after her husband's death, if there were no children, in order to continue the line of the dead husband.
is the sociological custom of a man marrying (or engaging in sexual activity with) his wife's sister (rarely with her brother), usually after the wife is dead or has proved infertile, this is to keep a marriage together.
Margaret Mead's Research
gender is a cultural construct, sex is biological.
the sexual distinction between male and female.
a term used to describe a person whose sex chromosomes, genitalia and/or secondary sex characteristics are determined to be neither exclusively male nor female.
Doing Gender
performances that we all do that fulfill our expectations of our gender, the role in your community, individual acts.
Feminist Anthropology
a specialty within anthropology with a concern to women’s status.
Gender Stratification
Unequal distribution of resources, power, prestige, human rights and personal freedom.
Women's Status
the cultural construction of women.
Public/ Public Sphere
differentiation between the home and the outside world
Gender Sratification in Matrilineal Societies
women had high status
Iroqouis Gender Relations
traditionally matrilineal
Gender Stratification in Patrilinieal Societies
related males live together, all traced through male line, women have little influence over public matters.
Third Genders
considered to be neither male nor female, berdache.
Genital Cutting
refers to genital modification and mutilation made to the human genitals using a cutting instrument.
American Myth of Race
people can be classified into racial categories by their physical features.
Proof Race is Not Biological
for race to be biological racial groups must be different from each other genetically and physically.
Genetic Proof Genotype
humans have a small amount of genetic variation, more variation within one race than between races, within any population 85% of human genes are represented.
Gender Proof Phenotype
exhibit gradual changes between groups, skin color is not black/white, different shades of brown.
Shared Gene Similarites
common genes shared with individuals in a given community.
Proof Race is a Cultural Contruction
racial schemes are not scientific.
Racial Schemes
how individuals get racial identities.
Rule of Hypo Decent/ One Drop Rule
automatically places the children of a union between members of different groups in the minority (or lower) group.
Blood Quantum
how native American communities determine membership.
US Census
number and names of racial categories change dramatically.
Animistic Religion
a belief system that does not accept the separation of body and soul, of spirit from matter.
Olympian Religions
associated with chiefdoms/state societies, polytheistic, many deities, often anthropomorphic, deities often ranked.
Monotheistic Religions
associated with chiefdom/state societies, full-time religious practitioners, supernatural, one omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent supreme being, other supernatural beings exist, but controlled by supreme beings.
often an attempt to gain control over chance.
formalized, stylized, and repetitive acts, often take place at certain times in special places, performed by priests to accomplish certain goals: ensure good harvest, signal change in social standing, enact religious events.
Rites of Passage
particular type of ritual, mark transitions from stage of life to another, all rites of passage include separation, liminality, incorporation. Ex. Graduation
individuals in liminal phase, cut off from ordinary life and social contacts, exist apart from normal social expectations, may wear special clothing or mark their bodies to symbolize this state.
during a ritual people are separated from their original society.
after the ritual incorporated back into the society.
collective state of liminality, community experiences liminality together, occurs for short time periods during religious events/rituals. Normal social rules disappear.
Revitalization Movements
during times of rapid change and unrest, charismatic leaders emerge who preach new religious doctrines.
combine native elements with new ideas, symbols.
Ghost Dance Movement
native American revitalization movement, spreads quickly from one tribe to another. Wovoka’s Prophesy, native people has to perform certain dances and wore ritual clothing, restore traditional native American cultures and economies.
Cargo Cults
to achieve European success, dominance and wealth, mimic what Europeans do, worship objects like flags, coins, key chains, believe that it is the objects Europeans use that give them power, believe if they use them, will also achieve power.
political, social, economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time.
Forced Assimilation
when a dominant group forces other groups to adopt the dominant culture.
when a dominant group tries to destroy the cultures of certain ethnic groups.
Cultural Imperialism
internal domination within a state, dominant culture makes itself the “official” culture.
Affects of Colonialism on Native Economies
destroyed their economies, diminished ability of native people to sufficiently produce goods to feed themselves.
third world hunger, famine not natural, created through the processes of colonialism.
Cash Crops
means that native people no longer able to grow food to subsist on, must buy food imported from other nations, opens new markets for European products.
Contemporary Impact of Colonialism
economic depression, cultural depression, today’s lecture. RWANDA, colonialism has impacted cultures because economically they are forced to become part of an economy while there’s are destroyed, ethnic violence Rwanda.
Ethnic Conflict
- sparked violence between ethnic groups, ethnic groups fight for dominance in a particular country, often fueled by the divisions created during colonialism.
strategic decisions to partially accept external cultural and or political domination. Example Native American leaders send to some of their youth to boarding schools.
resisting external cultural or economic domination.
-often subtle or hidden: “the hidden transcript”, Example mocking those in power, stealing, Contradictory.
the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs, often while melding practices of various schools of thought.
Cultural Continuity
development of new cultural institutions that incorporate traditional beliefs, symbols, allows for culture to adapt to change. Example Malaysian factory workers and spirit possession.