Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
State causal hypotheses
Include at least two levels of the independent variable but cannot always manipulate the independent variable
Usually cannot assign participants to groups but must accept existing groups
Include specific procedures for testing hypotheses
Include some controls for threats to validity
Nonequivalent Control-Group Design
The groups already exist in teh natural environment and therefore may not be tuly equivalent at the start of the study
Major problems (1) the groups may differ on the dependent measure (2) there amy be other differences between the groups
Crossover Effect
In Quasi-Experiment research, a finding in which two groups show one pattern of score before the manipulation and the reverse pattern after manipulation.
Interrupted Time-Series Design
A single group of participants is measured several times both before and after some event or manipulation
Frustrated Effect
Occurs when new procedures initiated in which a peak of disruptive behavior occurs immediately after traning begins
Program Evaluation REsearch
Evaluate how successfully a program meets its goals
Waitlist Control Group
A group of people who act as no-treatment controls, but are promised and received the treatment after they have served as control participants
Gather information by asking participants about their experiences, attitudes, or knowledge
Status Survey
Describes the current characteristics of a population (voter preference or teacher satisfaction)
Survey Research
Does not just seek the current status of population characteristics, but also tries to discover relationships among variables
Respondents read the instrucitons and write or mark their answers to the questions
Interview Schedule
In telephone or in-person interviews, the researcher reads teh questions to the respondent and records the answers
Deomgraphic Questions
Seek descriptive information about the respondents, such as age, sex, occupation, marital status, and so on (factual items that can be verified independently)
Content Items
Ask about respondents' opinons, attitudes, knowledge, and behavior
Open-ended Items
Questions that the participant answers in his or her own words