Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/216

Click to flip

216 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
B27 associations
psoriatic arthritis
ankylosing spondylitis
IBD
Reiter's syndrome
B8 associations
Grave's disease
Celiac sprue
DR2
MS
SLE
Goodpastures
DR3
TIDM
Sjogren's
DR4
TIDM
Rheumatoid arthritis
DR5
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Pernicious anemia
Bugs that can vary their antigens
Borrelia recurrentis
Neisseria gonnorhea
Salmonella
Trypanosomes
Th cell surf markers
TCR
CD3
CD4
CD28
CD40L
CTLA-4
CTL cell surf markers
CD3
CD8
TCR
B cell surf markers
CD19
CD20
MHC II
IgM
IgD
B7
CD40
CR2
Macrophage cell surf markers
CD14
MHC II
CR1
FcR
B7
NKT cells
CD16
CD56
MHC I receptor
IL-3
Secreted by activated Th cells
Similar to GM-CSF
IL-6
Secreted by Th and macrophages
Stims acute phase reactant
IL-10
Secreted by Th2 cells
Stims Th2 cells & inhibs Th1 cells
X-linked immune deficiencies
Bruton's
CGD
Wiskott-Aldrich
Causes of SCID
ADA deficiency
Failure of IL-2 receptor
Failure to transduce pre-TCR signal
Hyper-IgM syndrome
Defect in CD40L > can't class switch
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
Infections
Thryombocytopenic purpura
Eczema
Malignant lymphoma

X-linked
IgM can't respond to capsular polysacharides
Job's syndrome
Can't make IFN-gamma
Cold abscesses, retained primary teath
IgE
LAD I
Can't adhere
Severe pyogenic infections
Delayed umbilical separation
LAD II
Can't roll
Severe pyogenic infections
Delayed umbilical separation
Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Microtubule defect > lysosomal emptying problems > large granules

Recurrent pyogenic infections
Albinism
Periph neuropathy
Acute rejection cause`
T cell
Chronic rejection
Antibodies > fibrinoid necrosis
Pharmacokinetics:
Half life equation
t(1/2) = .7 * Vd/CL

Four half-lives = 93% change
Pharmacokinetics:
Maintenance dose
Md = ([X]p * Cl) / B

Adjust for renal/hepatic dysfunction
Pharmacokinetics:
Loading dose
LD = ([X]p * Vd) / B

Unchanged in renal/hepatic failure
Pharmacokinetics:
Volume of distribution
Vd = Dose / [X]p
Drugs with zero-order metabolism
Phenytoin, ethanol, high-dose aspirin
MAC
Minimal anesthetic concentration. Increases with decreasing potency/decr lipid solubility of agent
Methoxyflurane & toxicity
Inhaled general anesthetic
Nephrotox
Ketamine
Dissociative injectable anesthetic. Cardiovascular stim
Rapid acting benzo
Midazolam
Rapid acting barbiturate
thiopental
Propofol
IV general anesthetic
Vesamicol
Blocks ACh transport into vesicles
Reserpine
Blocks NE transport into vesicles
Hemicholinium
Blocks choline (RLS) into cells for ACh synth
Drugs:
Hexamethonium
Ganglionic (Nn) blocker
Drugs:
Anti-cholinergic toxicity
Red as a beet
Blind as a bat
Dry as a bone
Hot as hell
Fast as a hare
Mad as a hatter
Drugs:
Cholinesterase poisoning
Salivation
Lacrimation
Urination
Defecation
Bradycardia
Bronchospasm
Miosis
Sweating
Drugs:
Isoproterenol
Non-selective beta agonist
Drugs:
Pheylephrine
a1 agonist
Drugs:
Xylometzolone
a1 agonist > nasal decongestant
Drugs:
B1 selective beta blockers
Metoprolol, esmolol, atenolol, acebutalol
Drugs:
Timolol
Non-selective beta blocker for glaucoma
Drugs:
Beta blocker/partial agonists
PAL:
Pindolol
Acebutalol
Labetalol
Drugs:
Non-selective beta blockers
Propanolol, timolol, nadolol, pindolol
Drug side effects:
Gynecomastia
Spironolactone
Cimetidine
Alcohol
Ketokonazole
Drug side effects:
Acute cholestatic hepatitis
Macrolides
Drug side effects:
Acute Fanconi syndrome
Expired tetracycline
Drug side effects:
Aplastic anemia
Chloramphenicol
Benzene
NSAIDs
Drug side effects:
Agranulocytosis
Clozapine
Carbamazepine
Colchicine
Drug side effects:
Massive hepatic necrosis
Halothane
Valproic acid
Acetominophen
Drug side effects:
Photosensitivity
Sulfonamides
Amiodarone
Tetracycline
Drug side effects:
Lowered seizure threshold
Buproprion, imipenem/cilastin
Drug side effects:
P450 inhibitors
INH
Sulfonamides
Cimetidine
Ketoconazole
Erythromycin
Grapefruit
Drug side effects:
P450 inducers
Quinidine
Barbiturates
Phenytoin
Rifampin
Griseofulvin
Carbamazepine
Major mechanism of BP maintenance in hemorrhage
Venoconstriction/decr venous capacitance
Drugs:
Nitroprusside & tox
Powerful vasodilator
CN and thiocyanate generation
Short acting
Milrinone
PDE III inhib
Amiloride
Blocks ENaC
Triamterene
Blocks ENaC
Ibutilide
Blocks K+ channel in heart
Sotalol
Blocks K+ channel in heart
Amiodarone toxicities
Liver damage
Pulm fibrosis
Hypothyroidism
Gray skin deposits
Minoxidil
Opens ATP-gated K+ channels in vSMCs
Hydralazine
Opens K+ channels in vSMCs
Cilostazol
PDE III inhib > incr cAMP > vasodilation for claudication
Class IA antiarrhythmics
Quinidine
Procainamide
Disopyramide
Class IB antiarrhythmics
Lidocaine
Mexiletine
Class IC antiarrhythmics
Flecainide
Encaidine
Class III antiarrhythmics
Sotalol
Ibutilide
Mechanism of toxicity in ADA deficiency
Excess adenosine salvaged to excess dATP, which inhibs ribonucleotide reductase. Lack of NTPs causes SCID
DNA polymerase types and functions
DNA polymerase I: replace RNA primer w/ DNA (5'>3')
DNA polymerase III: 5'>3' synthesis, spell checker, and 3'>5' exonuclease
Most abundant RNA type? Made where in the cell? Made by which RNA polymerase?
rRNA made in nucleolus by RNA pol I
Smallest RNA type? Made by which RNA polymerase?
tRNA, RNA pol III
mRNA is made by which RNA polymearse?
RNA polymerase II
Stop codons?
TAG/UAG
TAA/UAA
TGA/UGA
Name of protein-coding RNA before processing to mRNA?
heternogenous nuclear RNA (hnRNA)
Location of AA binding to tRNA and sequence?
Amino acid binds to 3' end of tRNA where there is always a 5'CCA sequence
Names of ribosomal tRNA binding sites
A: loading site of charged AA-tRNA
P: initial binding site of Met
E: empty tRNA
Oubain
Inhibs Na+/K+ ATPase
Dynein
Retrograde transport on microtubules, cilia
Kinesin
Anterograde transport on microtubules
Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Microtubule polymerization/trafficking defect > defective phagolysosomes
Roles of lecithin
Lecithin = phosphatidylcholine
In myelin, bile,
In surfactant as dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine
Cholesterol esterification via LCAT
Collagen synthesis steps
1) Ribosome: preprocollagen synth (Gly-X-Y polymer, X & Y =proline and lysine)
2) ER: Hydroxylation of proline in lysine
3) Golgi: Glycosylation & assembly to procollagen trimer
4) Exocytosis
5) Cleavage of overhangs
6) Cross-linking > collagen fibrils
Diseases assoc w/ berry aneurysm
Marfan's
Ehler-Danlos
Adult polycystic kidney disease
Vimentin
Connective tissue IHC marker
Desmin
Muscle IHC marker
Aldolase B deficiency
Fructose intol: cirrhosis/jaundice, hypoglycemia, vomiting
Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency
Galactosemia > Cataracts (galactitol), retarded, HSM
Acetyl CoA fates
Acetoacetate > HMG CoA synthase
HMG CoA > HMG CoA lyase >ketones
HMG CoA > HMG CoA reductase > mevalonate > cholesterol
Acetyl CoA carboxylase > Malonyl CoA > fatty acids
Citrate synthase > TCA cycle
Regulation of G6P synthesis
Hexokinase: neg feedback by G6P
Glucokinase: lower Km but higher Vmax. Stim'd by insulin
ATP needed for gluconeogenesis to convert two pyruvates into one glucose?
6 ATP equivalents

Pyruvate carboxylase
PEP carboxykinase (GTP)
3PG > BPG
Regulators of PFK1?
Inhibs: ATP, citrate
Stims: F-2,6-BP, AMP
Regulators of pyruvate kinase?
Inhibs: alanine, ATP
Stims: F-1,6-BP
Regulators of aKG dehydrogenase?
Inhibs: ATP, NADH
Stims: ADP
Electron transport chain
NADH>C1 and pumped
FADH2>C2, no H+ pumped
CoQ
C3, H+ pumped
Cytochrome C
C4, H+ pumped and e- transferred to O2
C5: ATP synthase uses H+ gradient
Oligomycin
Poisons ETC ATPase > respiration stops b/c H+ build up
2,4-DNP
Uncouples ETC by allowing proton leak
Lipoic acid function
PDH & aKG dehydrogenase cofactor
Glutaminase
Release NH3 from glutamine to make glutamate
Glutamate dehydrogenase
Release NH3 from glutamate to make a-KG
Homocystinuria
Due to
1) Lack of cystithionine synthase
2) Low B6 affinity of CS
3) Lack of methionine synthase

Consequences
-Retard
-Tall
-Lens dislocation
-Atherosclerosis>MI/stroke
Alkaptonuria cause & consequence
Homogentisic acid oxidase deficiency
Blackened urine
Benign unless severe arthralgias
Pompe's disease
Lack of lysosomal a1,4-glucosidase
-Cardiomyopathy
-Cirrhosis
-Muscle weakness
Cori's disease
Lack of a1,6-glucosidase debranching enzyme
-Milder version of von Gierke's
von Gierke's disease symptoms
Lactic acidosis
Hypoglycemia (severe)
Glycogen in liver/hepatomegaly
Hexosaminidase
Deficient in Tay-Sachs
-GM2 ganglioside accumulates
-Cherry red spot
-Onion skin lysosomes
-
X-linked lysosomal storage diseases
Hunter's disease: iduronate sulfatase (mucopolysacaridase)
Fabry disease: a-galactosidase > ceramide accumulation
Glucocerebrosidase
Gaucher's disease > glucocerebroside accum
-Gaucher cells
-Bone crises
-Femur neccrosis
Sphingomyelinase
Nieman-Pick disease > HSM, cherry red spot, foamy macrophages
ApoA, ApoB, ApoC, and ApoE functions
ApoA: activates LCAT
ApoB: binds LDLR
ApoC: LPL cofactor
ApoE: remnant uptake
LCAT function
In HDL
Activated by ApoA
Esterifies free cholesterol and traps it in the HDL particle
CETP function
Takes cholesterol trapped in HDL by LCAT and transfers it to a VLDL for clearance
Type I familial dyslipidemia
Elevated chylomicrons due to decr LPL or ApoC (LPL cofactor)
Type IIa familial dyslipidemia
Elevated LDL due to LDLR mutation. Autosomal dominant
Acute intermittent porphyria
Lack of uroporphyrinogen I synthase > porphobilinogen accumulation.
Porphyria symptoms
abdominal colic
polyneuropathy
pink urine
psych
+/- skin stuff (itching/photosensitivity)
Pophyria cutanea tarda
Accum of uroporphyrinogen III
-Pruritic burning skin
-Polyneuropathy
-Abd colic
-Psych
Lead effects
Inhibs ALA dehydratase & ferrochelatase
-Abd colic
-Lead lines on gums and bones
-Wrist drop
-Basophilic stippling of RBCs
-Sideroblastic anemia
Ash leaf spots
Tuberous sclerosis
-Adenoma sebaceum
-Renal angiomyolipoma
-Cardiac rhadomyomas
-Tubers
-Seizures
-Retardadtion
Adenoma sebaceum
Tuberous sclerosis
-Tubers
-Ash leaf spots
-Retarded/seizures
-Cardiac rhabdomyomas
-Renal angiomyolipomas
vHL disease
cavernous hemangiomas
hemangioblastomas
renal cell CA (bilateral)
chromosome 3
Fragile X symptoms
-Retardation
-Long jaw
-Large testes
-Large ears
Down's associations
Acute lymphocytic leukemia
Endocardial cushion defects > septum primum ASD
Duodenal atresia
Down's serum markers
Incr hCG
Decr AFP
Decr unconj estriol
Incr nuchal translucency
Patau's syndrome
Trisomy 13
Causes and effects of vitamin B6 deficiency
Pyridoxal phosphate
-INH
-OCPs
Causes convulsions b/c can't make GABA. Also can't make niacin or degrade homocysteine with cystithionine
Causes of vitamin B3 deficiency
1) Diet lacking both niacin AND tryptophan
2) Hartnup disease
3) Carcinoid syndrome
4) INH causing vit B6 deficiency
Periplasmic space
Between peptidoglycan cell wall & outermembrane in GN bacteria. Houses enzymes, including lactamases
Bug with no murein in its cell wall
Chlamydia
Bug with abnormal capsule?
Bacillus anthracis
Poly-D glutamate instead of polysacharide
Teichoic acid
GP surface antigen
Key component of spore wall
Dipicolinic acid
Bugs w/ IgA proteases
Allow colonization of mucosal surfaces by:
S. pneumo
Neisseria meningitidis
Neisseria gonorrhea
Haemophilis influenzae
Novobiocin
Differenitate between coagulase negative GPCs:

Staph epidermidis: sensitive
Staph saprophyticus: resistant
Bacitracin
Distinguish between catalase negative beta-hemolytc GPCs (streptococci):

Strep pyogenes (GAS): sensitive
Strep agalactiae (GBS): resistant
Optochin
Distinguish between catalase negative, alpha hemolytic GPCs (streptococci)

Sensitive: strep pneumo
Resistant: strep viridans
Bacterial salt test
Distinguish between catalase negative, gamma hemolytic GPCs:

Sensitive: Group D strep
Resistant: Enterococcus
Media for growing gram negatives and distinguish lactose fermentation?
MacConkey's agar
Togaviridae
Rubella
EEE
VEE
Flaviviridae
Yellow fever
Dengue
HCV
West Nile
Picornaviridae
Polio
Echovirus
Rhinovirus
Coxsackievirus
HAV
Reoviridae
Rotavirus
Naked dsRNA virus
Paramyxoviridae
Parainfluenza
RSV
Measles
Mumps
Calicivirus
HEV
Norwalk
Vancomycin toxicities
Red man syndrome (antihistamines, slow infusion)
Nephrotox
Ototox
Imipenem toxicity
Seizures
Monobactam antibiotic?
Aztreonam
Methcillin toxicity?
Interstitial nephritis
What antibiotic can't be used with anaerobes and why?
Aminoglycosides (gentamycin, neomycin, amikacin, tobramycin, streptomycin) b/c need O2 to get into cell
VACUUM THe BedRoom
Bugs w/ tetracyclines:

Vibrio
Acne (proprionobacterium acnes)
Chlamydia
Ureaplasma urealyticum
Mycoplasma
Tularemia
H. flu
Borrelia
Rickettsia
Tetracyline class metabolism
Doxycycline is fecally eliminated so use it for renal patients
Capsofungin
Inhibs fungal cell wall synthesis>tx of aspergillosis
Terbinafine
Inhibs squalene epoxidase > can't make ergosterol. Used for dermatohytoses b/c accumulates in keratin-containing tissues
Flucytosine
Activated by fungi to 5-FU and then inhibs DNA synth by blocking thymidine synthesis
Azoles
Inhib ergosterol synthesis. Some too toxic for anything except topical use. Inhib P450. Inhib steroid synthesis >
Amphoteracin mech and tox
Mech: binds ergosterol > pores
Tox: shake & bake, nephrotox, arrythmias
Amantadine side effects and targets
Ataxia, slurred speech


Flu
Rubella (?)
Parkinson's
Ribavirin mech, side effects and targets
Inhibs GMP synthesis

Teratogen
Hemolytic anemia

RSV, HCV
Ganciclovir toxicity
Pan-myelosuppression
Day of implantation and what structure implants?
Blastocyst implants day 6 post-fertilization
Typical location of blastocyst implantation in uterus?
Posterior superior wall of uterus
Week heart begins to beat?
Week 4
Diaphragm embrylogolgy
Pleuroperitoneal folds (dorsal wall)
Dorsal mesoesophagus
Septum tranversum (ventral wall)
Body wall
Reportable diseases?
B.A. SSSMMART Chicken or you're Gone

HBV
HAV
Syphilis
Salmonella
Shigella
Measles
Mumps
AIDS
Rubella
TB
Chickenpox
Gonorrhea
Malpractice requrements
3Ds: Dereliction of Duty to Damage
Mature defense mechs?
1) Altruism
2) Humor
3) Sublimation
4) Suppression (voluntary)
Muscle histology: lines and bands of skeletal muscle
A band: myosin + actin
I band: actin only
H band: myosin only
M line: myosin fusion line
Z line: inter-sarcomere line
Psammomoa bodies
Papillary thyroid
Serous cystadenocarcinoma (ovary)
Meningioma
Mesothelioma
Orphan Annie nuclei
Papillary thyroid CA
Types of thyroid CA
Papillary
Follicular
Anaplastic
Medullary
Normal EF?
>55%
Huntinton's chromosome?
Chromosome 4
What percent reduction in area is required for stable/exertional angina? For "stable" angina at rest?
75% narrowing results in exertional angina

90% narrowing results in angina at rest
Interaction with adenosine that inhibits its effect?
Methylxanthines
Enzyme that activates pancreatic trypsinogen once it reaches the lumen? And where is it located?
Enterokinase in the brush border
Hesselbach's triangle borders and why I care
Site of direct inguinal hernia
Inferior border: inguinal ligament
Lateral border: inferior epigastric
Medial border: rectus abdominus
Mechanism of prochlorperizine
D2 antag
Mechanism of scopalamine
Anti-cholinergic
Mechanism of promethazine
Anti-histamine > motion sickness drug
Mechanism of metoclopramide
D2 antag
Types of diverticuli (pulsion vs. traction)
Pulsion=false=mucosa herniates through muscularis
Traction=true=all three layers
Pyloric stenosis: classic sign of physical exam, timing, and epidemiologic association
Sign: palpable olive
Timing: 2-4 wks
Epi: first-born males
Type A gastritis
Fundal atrophic/autoimmune gastritis. Achlorhydria, gastric CA
Type B gastritis
H. pylori. Incr gastrin and incr gastric acid.
Which IBD has granulomas?
Crohn's
Ulcerative colitis manifestations/association outside GI (there are 2)?
1) Pyoderma gangrenosum
2) Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Dimenhydrinate
Dramamine
Anti-histamine for motion sickness
Substance that dilates afferent arteriole?
Prostaglandins
Free water clearance
C(fw) = V - C(osm)

C(fw) = V - [V*U(osm)]/[P(osm)]
MUD PILES
Methanol
Uremia
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Phenacetin
INH/iron
Lactic acidosis
Ethylene glycol
Salicylates
Nephrotic syndrome causes in adults vs in children?
Kids: minimal change
Adults: membranous glomerulonephritis
WAGR complex
Wilms tumor
Aniridia
Genitourinary malformations
Retardation
Pharmacologic therapy for von Willebrand disease?
ddAVP
V1 receptor function and mech?
V2 receptor function and mech?
V1 > Gq > vasoconstriction
V2 > Gs > aquaporins
Inhibitor of GH release?
Somatostatin
Effects of PTH
1) Activates osteoclasts via osteoblasts > Ca2+ and phosphate release
2) Incr Ca2+ resorb by kidneys (DCT) > decr urinary Ca2+
3) Decr phosphate resorb by kidneys (PCT)
4) Incr urinary cAMP and phosphate
5) Incr calcitriol (stims 1a-hydroxylase)
Dexamethasone suppression test
1) Cortisol suppressed by low dose > normal

2) Cortisol suppressed only by high dose > pituitary ACTH-producing tumor

3) Cortisol not suppressed at any dose > cortisol-producing tumor or ectopic ACTH-producing tumor (small cell lung CA paraneoplstic syndrome)
Syndromes w/ pheochromocytoma
MEN II (IIa): w/ medullary thyroid & hyperparathyroid
MEN III (IIb): w/ medullary thyroid, cutaneuous neuromas, & marfanoid habitus
Neurofibromatosis
vHL
Wermer syndrome
MEN type I: pituitary tumor, parathyroid adenoma/hyperplasia, and pancreatic tumors
Sipple syndrome
MEN type II (IIa): Medullary thyroid CA, pheochromocytoma & parathyroid adenoma
How long does it take to go from spermatogonium to spermatozoon?
64 days
Lynch syndrome
1) HNPCC
2) Ovarian CA
3) Endometrial CA
Bernard-Soulier
Deficiency of GPIb
Glanzman's
Deficiency of GPIIb/IIIa
IL-3 function
Similar to GM-CSF
IL-6 function
Stims acute phase reaction
IL-8
Chemotactic factor
Site of AML spread
Gums
Site of ALL spread
CNS & testis (need CNS prophylaxis)
Hairy cell leukemia cell line, serum marker, and treatment?
Hairy B cells
Dx: TRAP
Rx: 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine