Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A plurality system naturally leads to a two-party system. In a single member district candidates will drive for the position and tqo main candidates will emerge pushing any third parties out.
Duverger's Law
Under proportional
systems there is a tendency towards multipartism. Regional concnetrations and emerging third parties can get ahold because they do not need a plurality. They can unite a small group of people and gain a seat
Duverger's Hypothesis
Commander in Chief of Army, negotiate treaties, names security council, chairs security council, referendums, propose legislation, declare national emergency, executive decrees, names cabinet ministers, dismiss the Duma in certain circumstances, dismiss the PM, veto power (2/3 of Duma to override), chairs cabinet meetings, directs state council.

Limits include the people, the Duma (impeachment and passing legislation), constitution
Powers of/limits on Russian President
Russian Communist Party-role in Soviet Union, current size and ideology
The russian Communst party under the Soviet Union was the only political party tolerated. It was a privelege to be apart of it and it was dangerous to challenge it. Once the Soviet Union dissolved it became a more democratic party and leaned more socialist. Today it's power yields about 10% of the vote and has continually been growing.
450 members, 4 year terms. Dismiss the PM, but then pres. Can choose if he wants to dismiss Duma also. Pass legislation,
Duma-size, powers, term of office
176-178 members. No more than 5 year terms. Approve martial law. Approve legislation.
Federation Council-size, powers
Rules on whether or not laws are constitutitutional. Cannot automatically analyze the constitutionality of laws. Challenges must be brought by a person in the government. No private chllenges. The law may be submitted to the Constitutional Court by the President of Russia, the government of Russia, the State Duma, the Federation Council of Russia, one-fifth of members of the State Duma or the Federation Council, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation or the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation
Constitutional Court
A system of federalism in which subunits do NOT all have the same powers and rights. Was a result of deals struck after the breakup of the Soviet Union
Republics (21): have presidents, most powerful ‘subjects’
Oblasts (48): have governors
Krais (7): smaller and weaker than oblasts
Okrugs (9): ethnically defined areas within oblasts and krais
Federal cities (2): St. Petersburg and Moscow
Asymmetrical federalism
??????(21): have presidents, most powerful ‘subjects’
??????(48): have governors
Republic Versus Oblast
formed by the President in accordance with the Constitution and the Federal Law “On Security”. The President chairs the Council and appoints its members.
constant analysis and strategic planning regarding all security issues, as well as the drafting of presidential decisions, necessitates the existence of a special constitutional advisory body accountable to the President.
Security Council
an advisory body to the Head of State, which deals with issues of the highest importance to the state as a whole.
aids the President in discharging his duties to ensure the concerted functioning and interaction of various governmental bodies.
State Council (Russia)
Current head of the Russian government sharing power with the president. Works with the president and takes the place of the president in case of his death.
Role of Prime Minister
1st. One half of the deputies are elected by a system of proportional representation and one half are elected by plurality in single member districts.
2nd-chosen by territorial politicians
3rd-Elected directly by the people in plurality election
4th-appointed by the president and approved by the legislature.
Russian Electoral Systems-Duma, Federation Council, , Governors
Putin is the head of it's party and it also holds power in the Duma. Very Nationalistic and semi-socialist.
United Russia Party
Led by Vladimir Zhirinovsky. Very Nationalistic. Strongly against immigration, state ownership of main industries, right to work, control of agricuture by state.
Liberal Democratic Party (Russia)
They are vital to the russian polticial system. Makes party loyalty low and coalitions neccessary.
Role of Independant Candidates (Russia)
Under the Soviet Union it was the priveleged class in the government. This group was not elected and set the communist agenda and helped to run the government. They were the strong beuracratic communist government.
Basis of the vote (cleavages) in Russia
Put into practice by him after the Russian Revolution. It is a form of communism that was in effect in Russia up to the fall of the Soviet Union. Stresses the importance of imperialism. The key to reform is overthrowing capitalism.
a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. They were communist leaders who felt too much control was being given to the republics. It was crushed after only 3 days, but sent a message that union could be held in adecentralized form. Marked the end of the Soviet Union.
August 1991 Coup
Federal subject of Russia that declared independance after th collpase of the Soviet Union in 1991. Yeltzin opposed their independance and has been stuck in a struggle ever since for control.
Internal affairs of Soviet states were tightly controlled. Held that any soviet state had to give into the control of the centralized government. Ended in 1989 with the Sinatra Doctrine.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Command Economy (two key elements) (Russia)
1. Important economic assets belong to state,

2. Rapid industrialization program, focused mostly on heavy industry
It was the ministry through which the state planned the economy under the Soviet Union. Creation of 5 year plans.
Economic policy in Russia that stood for decentralization of economic planning. Went into effect after Glasnost failed. emphasized increasing privatization.
Pushed free speech. Political reform under Gorbachev that stood for pushing open debate in order to try and push perestroika. He believed glasnost would end up in people supporting his ideas of economic reform. It however backfired and ended up in his downfall and the soviet unions downfall when people demanded even greater reforms.
Foreign policy that was part of Perestroika to reduce the military budget of the Soviet Union. Was part of the end to the Cold War.
New Thinking
It would fail because of the neglect of agriculture. Created massive starvation when many switched to more profitable industries. Privatization: Selling of sate companies, Efforts to develop infrastructure for market economy, Trade and investment, eliminate sate plan on production.
Shock Therapy
One seat in the district, First place party with any vote percentage receives the seat
More than one representative in the district, same percent of seats as % of vote.
Proportional Representation
Indirect election that is ratified by the National People's Congress. Head of state and communist party. Power is centralized around the executive.
Executive (President/Premier) (China)
70 million members (5% population). The ruling party in China. It has guranteed authority under their constitution and does not have to proceed through any sort of electoral process. The party serves as a way to recruit the elites in service to the state. The President leads the party along with the government.
Chinese Communist Party (CCP)-role in China, size, inernal structures
contains the leading figures of the party, state, and army. It is the highest authoriy in the communist party inbetween when the party congress meets. It is essential in setting the agenda of the communist party.
Central Committee
Key state positions are invariably held by members of the party. At lower levels, local party officials oversee work of local governments.
Authority is exercised under it in the communist party. There are multiple channels of command.
Dual Rule
Public official holding a responsible or managerial position, usually full time, in party and government. The list is ranked base dupon the positionn one holds running down to the ordinary officials. It determines someon'es power and pay.
Cadres/Cadre List
Personal ties between potential employer and potential employees
Based on family, friendship, school
Access to state positions determined by personal relationships
People who have technical educations, professional careers, and high posts.
Come from disciplines in science and technology such as geology, agriculture, chemistry, engineering, economics
Characterized by belief that countries better off if governed by experts, not politicians.
Tend to make decisions based solely on technical information and not personal or public opinion.
Led by Mao Zedong and the Communists. It allowed at first people to express their views on different issues, but then resulted in a crack down and persecution of those people. It marked a major crackdown on intellectuals and led to possibly millions of deaths.
Hundred Flowers Campaign
After the failure of the Great Leap Forward Mao came into conflict with those who desired to moderate the economy. In an effort to stop them Mao called up the Red Guard and attacked those who were seen to be bourgeois or rightists. The revolution continud on resulting in much waste and suffering until Mao died. It marked the beginning of changes to the economy allowing more ownership at the local levels.
Cultural Revolution/Old 3 Classes
Very large with 2.985 members. It has relatively weak authority because power in centralized behind the CCP. They do have to ratify the executive however.
National People's Congress
Directs and commands the national armed services. Under authority of the CPC. The chairman is nominated by the the CPC at the National Congress and affirmed by the National People's Congress. The Chairman hols authority over the militay and actions tht involve it.
Central Military Commission
State-owned enterprises. The basic-level organization through which party and government officials control social, political, and economic behavior of residents. The danwei typically controls the allocation of housing, grain, edible oil, and cotton rations; the issuance of permits to travel, to marry, and to bear or adopt children; and permission to enter the army, party, and university and to change employment.
China is led by... ideals.People were tested ont heir measure in which they upheld these values. It was embedded in Chinese structure.
It emphasizes:
Family responsibility
Respect for hierarchy
Loyalty to rulers
Appreciation for learning
Personal honor
Ritual duties to ancestors
Mao was committed to revolution before he was Communist. Mao saw China as a Marxist class struggle, but containing complexity due to the reality of Chinese society. He believed China needed to also to take the concerns of the peasants and integrate them into the CCP. For him it came down to mass mobilization. He desired to mobilize the people of China believing that anything could be achieved then.
Mao Zedong Thought
Presided over by the premier (PRESIDENT) who is elected by the NPC uo recoomendation of the CCP central committee. The primary role is to oversee the work of ministries and commissions that administer the country.
State Council (China)
Peak organization containing all Chinese unions. there are over 134 million members. It works with the CCP in order to try and protect workers' economic, political and cultural rights, stimulate workers' enthusiasm and push ahead with China's revolution, construction and reform.
All-China Federation of Trade Unions
A mass youth organization with the age range of 7 to 14. The goal is to teach children how to be good Communists throughslogans, chats, and activites. They were used as a symbol of defeat to the students at Tianenmen square.
Young Pioneers
A series of demonstrations that were led primarily by students. The government declared martial law and sent the People's Liberation Army in to take control of the city. The result was multiple protesters were either killed or injured in what has historically now been called a massacre. It was important in that it damaged relations with the west who felt protesting should be a right of people and declaring war on people's speech was wrong.
Tiananmen Square Protests
Selling of state owned companies. In general moving toward model of private ownership rather than state ownership.

In China:
Excludes heavy industry. More management practice than ownership transfer. Grow small enterprises rather than privatize existing state-owned companies.
Privatization Defintion
Investment made by a foreign individual or company in another country. China has greatly increased in this.
FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) Defintion
Under the leadership of Mao and part of his economic reforms called "The Great Leap Forawrd" he pushed people to make steel using furnaces in their "backyard." The goal was to incrase China's industry power and catc up to the UK in steel output. The problem was the steel they produced was so weak and they were not able to sell it. The result was that agriulture greatly descreased in China in the effort to produce steel and people could not make a profit off it and as a result a massive amount of people starved.
Backyard Furnaces
Led by Mao from 1958-1962. It was the second five year plan that had a goal of of changing China from an agricultural economy to industrialization under communism. One main thing Mao attempted to do is push "backyard furaces" that would be used to make steel. In the end agricultural greatly decreased, but the steel was practically unuseable and so many people died from starvation. The result was that China would go onto push reforms to liberalize part of the economy in order to rely more on technical expertise.
Great Leap Forward
Was an agricultural reform in which farmers would be allowed to have private management of their crops, but not private ownership
Household Responsibility System
Created in order to increase the amount of tax revenue the state would recive. The Chinese government created the incentive for business by allowing the enterprises to rettain part of the taxes raised for local purposes. This has beena great success in China ever since expanding business and industrial output.
Township and Village Enterprises
It is a geographical region that ha more libeeral laws than would normally exist in the state. China is one of the places these exist in an effort to support foreign investment. The companies receive great tax incentives and certain legal authorty.
Special Economic Zones (SEZ)
GDP grew on average about 10%/year from 1979-1995, quadrupling GDP
Personal incomes doubled or tripled
Industrial production growing at 20% per year or more
Inflation low
Life expectancy rising
Outcomes of economic reforms(China)
The ejido consists of cultivated land, pastureland, other uncultivated lands, and the fundo legal, or town site. The cultivated land is generally apportioned in family holdings, which until recently could not be sold but could be passed down to heirs. In 1992 the law that prohibited their sale was revoked.
Protect Mexican industries from foreign (US) imports in order to develop industry
State assistance to industry
State ownership of “key” industries
Regulation of foreign investment (majority Mexican ownership, except in maquiladora sector)
Model of Economic Development, 1930-1980 (Mexico)
Mexico's state-owned, nationalized petroleum company. It is the sole supplier of mexican oil.
a factory that imports materials and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly or manufacturing and then re-exports the assembled product usually back to the originating country. They are primarily on the US Mexico border.
Slash state budgets, reducing subsidies, price supports, loans and credit
Reduce regulation in all areas, but especially foreign investment
Privatization of state-owned companies (but NOT oil or electricity)
End of land reform and privatization of ejido
Embrace free trade: negotiations of NAFTA
Neoliberalism (Mexico)
Goes into effect: Jan. 1 1994
Embraces free trade between Mexico, US and Canada by allowing competition in industry. Lowers tariffs between the countries and allows foreign ownership.
Trade increase dramatically, is increasingly focused on the United States (86% of exports from Mexico go to US; 55% of imports come from US)
Trade increasingly involves manufactured goods.
Increases the amount of Maquiladoras.
NAFTA-year, content, main effects
system of government that meets 3 essential conditions:

1 Meaningful and extensive competition

2. Highly inclusive political participation

3. A level of civil and political liberties sufficient to ensure the integrity of political competition and participation
Defintion of Democracy
Lower hous of Bicameral legislature. 300 plurality district seats
200 PR seats. Replaced every three years. laws, impose taxes, declare war, approve the national budget, approve or reject treaties and conventions made with foreign countries, and ratify diplomatic appointments.
Chamber of Deputies--size, terms, powers
Powers include:
The right to propose laws directly
Line item veto (controversial)
Can freely name and remove cabinet members and Attorney General…name and remove employees of state whose accession and removal is not otherwise determined by law
Commander and chief
Nominate 11 supreme court justices, subject to approval by Senate

Limits include:
No re-election
Legislative balancing after 1997
Reform of curt system, to add judicial review, in the 1990s.
Internal party balancing-spread of democratic candid date selection.
More independent governors
Powers of/Limits on president
128 senators:2 seats per state to plurality winner
1 seat per state to second-place party
32 “national senators” by PR

Serve 6 year terms

Powers:Their main role is in foreign policy, approves international agreements, and confirms presidential appointments.
Senate--Size, terms, powers
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)--Incorporates mass organizations (unions, peasants)

The National Action Party (PAN)--Business/Catholic origins; today includes some middle-class

The Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD)--Base in urban poor, intellectuals, peasants
Basis of the vote in Mexico: Who supports which party?
Has judicial review in Mexico.It has the power to declare laws unconstitiutional, but must take every case individually not turning to precedent already set. They are nominated by the president and then approved by the senate. 11 serve 15 years and not allowed to serve longer.
Supreme Court (Mexico)
A system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units. Mexico's has a federalist system that is limited by local authorites, but has been strengthening.
Each of Mexico's 31 states are divided into these. They address a lot of the local needs (water, shelter, etc.) and can tke in taxes.
Mikhail Gorbachev
After he took power he saw it neccessary to get the Soviet Union's economy back in order. In order to do this he began the process of decreasing the military and Perestroika which pushed decentralization of economic planning In an effort to get support for this he instituted Glasnost that allowed people to have fee speech to stat what they felt. He believed in doing this people would like the liberal reforms and support him. It actually backfired on him becuase then the people wanted even greater reforms. In ended in his downfall and overthrow by Yeltzin.
Boris Yeltsin
Took over power after Gorbachev. Instituted dramatic "shock therapy" and declared the Soviet Union dissolved. It ended up failing resulting in inflation running up to 2000%.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
Founded 1929
Incorporates mass organizations (unions, peasants)
Center of political spectrum
The only national party
The National Action Party (PAN)
Founded in 1939
Business/Catholic origins; today includes some middle-class
Center-right position
Primary stronghold in Northern Mexico
The Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD)
Founded in 1989
Base in urban poor, intellectuals, peasants
Center-left position
Primarily regional in center and South Mexico
Confederation of Mexican Workers(CTM)) is the largest confederation of labor unions in Mexico.
National Peasant Organization. Main peasant organization, in peasant sector
refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, and professional groups.
Factors favoring democratization
1. democratic political culture
2. performin well economically
3. High levels of economic development
4. A countries religion
5. Countries with dense civil society
6. Ethic diversity
Ethnicity and democracy
miliethnic countries favor democracy
Vladimir Putin
Current president of Russia. Came into power after Boris Yeltsin. Problems in the Russian system led to him pushing a closed party list represenatation.
Carlos Salinas
President of Mexico from 1988 to 1994. Important in joining NAFTA and reforming Mexico as a very leftis candidate. Reformed the electoral syste making it citizen controlled.
Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas
Founded the PRD. He defeated the PRI in 1988.
The Cultural Revolution
Let a Hundred Flowers Bloom campaign. Came to power after the Chinese civil war as the Premier.
Mao Zedong
served as the de facto leader of the People's Republic of China from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. He pineedered the Chinese economic reform. He also led the crackdown at Tiananmen square. He allowed Special economic zones. He believed in Socialism with Chinese Characteristics.
Deng Xiao Ping