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17 Cards in this Set

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Low blood levels of hormone increase the number of receptors per cell, this is called
up-regulation
High blood levels of hormone decrease the number of receptors, this is called
down regulation
Three characteristics shared by all hormones?
1. They are synthesized and released (secreted) by endocrine glands into the circulation
2. They reach their target cells through the circulation
3. They affect only target cells with specific receptors for the specific hormone
Where is the receptor for water-soluble hormone?
on the membrane
Where is the receptor for a fat-soluble hormone?
inside the cell
If the receptor is on the membrane (water soluble), then what is responsible for the cellular response?
second messenger is responsible for the cellular response
If the receptor is inside the cell (fat soluble)then what is responsible for the cellular response?
the hormone-receptor complex is responsible for the cellular
response
Of the three impacts on the cells which hormones that regulate growth cause the cell to express genes that produce certain proteins?
Ex- testosterone on skeletal muscle; example: muscle hypertrophy
1. Increased protein production
Of the three impacts on the cells some hormones that activate certain enzymes that break down certain substrates
Ex- glycogenolysis is activated by cortisole, epinephrine, and glucagon
The intracellular effectors are enzymes
2. Enzyme activation:
Of the three impacts on the cells some hormones that increase the energy production of target cells by increasing metabolism
– The intracellular effectors are enzymes
– Example: epinephrine (adrenalin)
3. Increased metabolism:
What 2 hormones does the posterior pituitary gland directly secrete?
1. ADH (affects the kidneys)
2. Oxytocin (affects both uterus and breast tissue)
The anterior pituitary secretes tropic hormones (secondary), what are they?
1. Growth hormone (GH)
2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
3. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
5. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
6. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
7. Prolactin (PRL)
What is affected in the Short loop?
affecting the anterior pituitary’s hormones
What is affected in the long loop?
the hypothalamic hormones
What does the GH stimulate?
GH increases metabolic processes of growth and stress in every cell in the body
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates?
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn, increases the hormones of the adrenal cortex: cortisol (a stress
hormone), aldosterone (conserves sodium), and androgenic steroids (growth involving secondary sex characteristics)
What hormones does the hypothalamus release?
Releasing and inhibiting hormones to act on glands. It produces ADH and oxcytocin but they are released by the pituitary.