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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1)mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
2)absorption of nutrients by cells
functions of digestive system
2)mechanical digestion
3)break large particles into smaller w/o altering chemical composition
4)chemical digestion
5)break down of food into simpler chemicals
a mass of food that is mixerd with salivary juices
food that has reached stomach and began digestion
Alimentary Canal
1)muscular tube
2)specialized by regions for particular functions
3)structure of wall similar throughout length
4 layers
1)surface epithelium, ct, small amount of smooth muscle
2)sometimes folded to absorptive
3)lumen=passageway of tube
4 layers
1)glands, vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves
4 layers
*muscular layer*
1) 2 layers of smooth muscle
2)circular=contraction produces tube diameter (inner)
3)longitudinal=contraction produces shortening (outer,lengthwise)
4)produces mvt of tube
4 layers
1)visceral peritoneum
2)outer covering
2 movement types
1)small segments of muscles contract rhythmically
2)wave moves from one end to the other
2 movement types
2)relaxation of tube just ahead of contraction
3)works to push contents ahead
2)mechanical digestion
-reduces size of food
-prepared food for chemical digestion, 1st by saliva
3)oral cavity
-chamber between palate and tongue
-space between teeth, cheeks, and lips
1)skeletal muscle
2)sensory receptors
3)blood vessels impart reddish color
-connects tonue to floor of mouth
2)mostly skeletal muscle
3)helps move food and mis food with saliva
4)many taste buds
5)root surrounded by lingual tonsils
-lymphatic tissue
Roof of oral cavity
Hard Palate
2)maxillary and palatine bones
Soft Palate
1)forms uvula
2)closes opening to nasal cavity during swallowing
Palantine Tonsils
1)back of tongue on each side
Pharyngeal Tonsils
2)above soft palate
Salivary Glands
*secrete saliva*
1)moistens good
2)begins chemical breakdown of carbohydrates
two types of secretory cells:
serous-produce watery solution that contains amylase (begins chemical digestion of carbs)
second type of secretory cell:
mucous-secrete mucous
Salivary Glands
*parotid glands*
1)anterior and inferior to ear
2)secretes clear, water, serous fluid
3)rich in amylase
Salivary Glands
*submandibular glands*
1)floor of mouth on inside of lower jaw
2)primarily serous fluid
3)some mucus
Salivary Glands
*sublingual glands*
1)on floor of mouth, ingerior to tongue
2)primarily mucus=thick
3)most viscous
connects nasal and oral cavities with esophagus and larynx
3 parts to Pharynx
1)communicates with nasal cavity
2)passageway for air
3 parts to Pharynx
1)posterior to soft palate
2)inderior to nasopharynx
3)passageway for food moving from mouth
3 parts to Pharynx
1)inferior to oropharynx
2)passage for food into esophagus and air entering larynx
Swallowing Mechanism
1)soft palte and uvula raise
2)hyoid bone and larynx elevate
3)tongue pressed agains soft palate (seals off oral cavity from pharynx)
4)longitudinal muscles of pharynx contract (pulls pharynx upward)
5)inferior constrictor muscles relax and esophagus opens
6)peristalic waves push food through pharynx
1)food passageway from pharynx to stomach
2)posterior to trachea
3)penetrates diaphragm
*lower esophageal sphincter*
1)circular muscles
2)where esophagus joings stomach
3)usually closed
4)prevents food regurgitation
5)"cardial sphincter"
*hiatal hernia*
1)part of stomach protrudes through weakened area of diaphragm
2)allows regurgitation
1) J shaped pouch
2)upper left part of abdomen
3)empties into small intestines at pyloric sphincter
-thick folds of mucosal and submucosal layers
-disappear when stomach distends
*cardiac region*
1)small aread near esophagus
*fundic region*
1)balloon superior to cardiac region
2)temporary storage of food
*body region*
1)main part
2)between fundic and pyloric
*pyloric region*
1)narrows to enter small intestines
2)pyloric sphincter-circular muscle that acts as a valve for passage of food into SI
Lining of Stomach
1)mucous membrane lining stomach is studded with gastric pits
2)gastric pits are at end of gastric glands
3)gastric glands=3 cell types
3 Cell Types
*mucous cells*
1)"goblet cells"
2)located near opening of pit
3 cell types
*cheif cells*
1)deeper part of gland
2)secrete digective enzym,es
3 cell types
*parietal cells*
1)release HCL
Things absorbed in stomach
1)some water
2)certain salts
3)certain lipid-soluble drugs
Enterogastric Reflex
1)regulates the rate at which chyme leaves the stomach
1)fits into the C shaped curve in duodenum
2)pancreatic acinar cells produce pancreatic juices
3)secretions emptied into small intestines (duodenum)
Pancreatic juices
1)pancreatic amylase-splits glycogen into disaccharides
2)pancreatic lipase-breaks down triglycerides
3)trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carbooxypeptidase-digest proteins
4)nucleases-digest nucleic acids
5)bicarbonate ions-make pancreatic juic alkaline
1)upper right quadrant inferior to diahpragm
2)very vascular
3)"heaviest organ in the body"
*hepatic lobule*
1)lobes of liver divided into functional units=lobules
-hepatic cells radiating out from central vein
-hepatic sinusoids seperate groups of cells from each other
*hepatic lobule*
1)hepatic portal vein brings nutrient absorbed from digestive tract to liver
2)bile canaliculi carry cells secretions to bile ductules
-ductules converge to form hepatic ducts
-ducts merge to form common hepatic duct
Liver funtcions
*carbohydrate metabolism*
1)produces glycogen from glucose
2)beraks down glycogen into glucose
3)converts noncarbohydrates to glucose
liver functions
*lipid metabolism*
1)oxidizes fatty acids
2)synthesized phospholipids and cholestorol
3)converts carbohydrates and proteins into fats
liver functions
*protein metabolism*
1)breaks down amino acids and forms urea
2)synthesizes plasma proteins
3)converts come amino acids to other amino acids
liver functions
1)stores glycogen, vitamins A, D, B12, Iron, and blood
Liver functions
*blood filtering*
1)phagocytosis of worn out RBC's and foreign substances
Liver Functions
1)removes toxins from blood
liver functions
1)produces and secretes bile
1)yellow- green liquid secreted from hepatic cells
2)contains-water and bile salts
3)emulsification of fats- breaks fats into smaller particles
4)absorption of fatty acids, cholesterol, and fat-coluble vitamins
5)bile pigments- breakdown products of hemoglobin from RBC's
1)pear-shaped sac
2)connects to cystic duct- connects with hepatic duct to form common bile duct
3)stores bile between meals
4)contracts to release bile into SI
Small Intestines
1)extends from pyloric sphincter to beginning of large intestine
Small Intestines
1)1st part
2)C-shape anterior to R kidney
3)dixed portion-attached to back wall by parietal peritoneum
Small Intestines
2)2nd segment
Small Intestines
1)final segment
2)no real division between jejunum
1)suspends portions of the small intestine from the posterior abdominal wall
2)allows passage of blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels
Greater Omentum
1)apron from stomach over transverse colon and small intestines
2)may help prevent spread of infection from wall of alimentary canal
Wall of Small Intestines
1)Plicae circularis=folds of mucosa- helps absorptive surface area
Intestinal Villus
1)tiny prejections of the mucous membrane
2)mostly in duodenum and proximal jejenum
3)increase surgace area to aid in absorption
Intestinal Villus consists of:
1)layer of simple columnar epithelium
2)free surface has many microbilli to absorptive surface area
3)blood capillary
4)lacteal=lymphatic capillary
5)intestinal glands between adjacent villi
Secretions of small intestines
1)peptidase-breaks down peptides into amino acids
2)sucrase, maltase, lactase- break down disaccharides into monosaccharides
3)lipase-breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
Regulation of small intestinal secretions
1)mucus secretion stimulated by presence of chyme in small intestin
2)distension of intestinal wall activates nerve plexuses in wall of small intestine
3)parasympathetic trigger release of intestinal enzymes
absorption of the small intestines
*monosaccharides and amino acids*
1)through facilitated diffusion and active transport
2)absorbed into blood
*electrolytes and water*
1)through diffusion, osmosis, and active transport
2)absorbed into blood
*fatty acids and glycerol*
1)fat molecules digested by enzymes from intestinal mucosa and pancread
2)several steps for absorption
3)absorbed into lypmh and blood
Movements of Small Intestines
1)mixing movements
2)peristalsis-pushing movements (slow, takes 3-10 hours to travel through SI)
3)segmentation-ringlike contractions
4)overdistended wall triggers peristaltic rush
-moves chyme quickly through Si
-water, nutrients, and electrolytes are not absorbed
-resulting in diarrhea
Large Intestines
1)diameter larger the SI
2)seperated from ileum by ileocecal sphincter
3)opens to outside of body as anus
4)works to absorb water and electrolytes
Large Intestines consist of:
-dilated pouch at beginning
-veriform appendix projexts downward from inferior end
-ascending colon
-transverse colon
-descending colon
-sigmoid colon (S shaped curve that becomes rectum)
-Anal Canal
1)smooth muscle
2)involuntary control
*external anal sphincter*
1)skeletal muscle
2)voluntary control
Wall of Large Intestines
1)same layers as other parts
2)lacks villi
3)mostly goblets cells
-only mucus secretion
4)teniae coli
-logitudinal muscle fivers on outside of colon
-puches created by teniae coli
Functions of Large Intestines
1)little or no digestive function
2)absorbs water and electrolytes
3)house intestinal flora
-home to 100 trillion bacteria
4)forms feces
5)carries out defecation
Movements of Large Intestines
1)slower and less frequent than those of small intestine
2)mixing movements
4)mass movements usually follow meals
5)bile pigments altered by bacteria provide color
6)smell produced by bacterial compounds
Life-Span Changes
1)teeth become sensitive
2)gums recede
3)teeth may loosen or fall out
4)heartburn more freguently
5)constipation more frequent
6)nutrient absorption decreases
7)accessory organs age but the effects are less noticeable