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114 Cards in this Set

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William Bradford
Leader of the Pilgrims, recorded their journey and progress
Anne Hutchinson
Had a group that discussed sermons, said she had visions. Indians threatened Boston and a couple men refused to serve, they were Antinomians, followers of Anne. Banished to RI, then massacred by Indians in 1643
William Penn
Quaker, Pennsylvania, pacifists, religion tolerant… Penn wanted colony to be a “holy experiment”. Believed in religious freedom, civil liberties, elected representation. Great relationship with Indians, wouldn’t allow further colonization without settlement agreements. Provided refuge for Indians. agricultural
John Smith
He arrives to Jamestown and brings order to original group of settlers, discipline… gets injured and returns to England
John Rolfe
(husband of Pocahontas) , discovered a hearty mix of tobacco, dies in Algonquians raid in 1622
Roger Williams
Part of MBC Religious but believes that church and state should be separated, banished b/c of his beliefs but escapes with the help of Indians…forms Rhode Island and is governor for many years
Thomas Hooker
Connecticut (Constitution State), he led exodus to small Dutch trading post, Fort Hope in Hartford to prevent them from settling. Formed government governing by a covenant, fundamental orders, organized into a royal charter in 1662
James Oglethorpe
Leader of Georgia, wanted to create haven for poor English farmers, originally slavery was abolished…
John Winthrop
MB Company, wealthy puritans in NE, city on the hill, governor, he declared that all household men that were head of the house and part of the church were free men , later led to them electing delegates to draft law. The delegates later separated into 2 leg houses=joint stock company
Squanto
Spoke English bc he was captured by England. Returned home and whole tribe was wiped out. Showed pilgrims how to survive
Subsistence farming
New England colonies, only making enough for the family
Indentured servants
A person who worked w/o wages for a period of 5-7 years in exchange for passage to America. The contract (indenture) entitled the servant to food, clothes, shelter and med attention. Devised by Virginia Company… one half to two thirds of all immigrants were a part of the system. Done after 1800
Cash crops
Jamestown colonies, sugar cane, tobacco, rice indigo
Nathaniel Bacon
Graduate of Cambridge, backcountry gentry, didn’t want to limit western expansion, threatened to take over Jamestown twice, largest insurrection prior to revolution, most were former indentured servants who wanted land
House of burgesses
First rep govn’t in America, like legislative. 22 members, reported to a governor who was appointed in London
Colonial economy
South: Tobacco, dependant on more than 12 slaves, rice, indigo, trading mostly in England, plantations=communities
North: farming, subsistence, Atlantic trading, ship building, houses around a common, had selectmen to make decisions, patriarchal society
Mercantilism
Zero sum economy, to be wealthy you either have to keep your own wealth and steal someone elses
The great awakening
Ministers called for piety, grew out of enlightenment, Harvard=train ministers, growth of other small Methodists, witchcraft, old light vs new light, george whitefield, national event, cotton mather
Navigation acts
Only import and export English materials, 4 parts
The Dominion of New England
Created by James II, combined mass w/ rest of NE and NY and NJ and appointed a single governor, Sir Edmund Andros. Led to Jacob Leisler starting a protest
Roanoke
1584: Fist settlers but were picked up on Drake's way back because the settlers hate it and are starving
1586: Raleigh brings new group. When leadership leaves for supplies they retunr four years later and whole colony is gone. word CROATOAN is there
Walter Raleigh
settles roanoke
Humphrey Gilbert
half brother of Raleigh. gets charter to settle Newfoundland
Jamestown
joint stock company (London Company Charter) gold, first permament english colony
Plymouth
sepratists, wrote mayflower compact. William Bradford was leader. no progress. only one plow after 20 years of settlement
headright system
for every person you bring to America, you get a certain amount of land
Powhatan
possibly killed Roanoke settlers or brought into culture because of traites in children (blonde hair, blue eyes), tribe of Pochahantus
Mayflower compact
first document of self governing in North America
Puritans
*formed MBC as excuse to escape persecution
*MBC became the colonial gvnt, quickly became theocracy
*wanted to form a "city on the hill"
*shipbuilders, form Zion
*financially successful. no virtue in poverty
Great Migration
new colonies began to spring up, extraordinary growth. 22 settlements in Boston
orders of Connecticut
fundamental orders, formed a government with a small group governing by covenant
Glorious Revolution
bloodless transition of power in England in 1688. got rid of James II and replaced with Mary
Virginia
London Company
Mass
Putians
New Hampshire
John Wheelright
Maryland
Lord Baltimore
Connecticut
Thomas Hooker
Rhode Island
Roger Williams
Delaware
Peter Minuit and New Sweden Company
N Carolina
Virginians
S Carolina
Eight nobles with a Royal charter from Charles II
New Jersey
Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret
New York
Duke of York
Pennsylvania
William Penn
Georgia
James Oglethorpe
The Albany Conference
*called for by Britsh
* Franklin and delegates from Penn, MAryland, NY and NE attended
*purpose was to negotiate a treaty w/ Iroquois
*Franklin encouraged them to stay on and discuss a colonial federation for protection. FIRST PROPOSAL OF COLONIAL GOVT
Join or Die
first political cartoon. not about the revolution, Intercolonial unity was needed
French Indian War
*part of seven years war
*struggle for naval dominance between England and France
*about uneasy alliance among French, Iroquois and British N. Americans
results of war
*greatly expanded territory claims of England in NA
*finanically drained England
*forced colonists to work in concert
*made colonists fear the interference of British in local affairs
*created long lasting resentments
*native americans lose most
WIlliam Pitt
brought more pressure to war in NA. sent more soldiers and forcibly enlisted colonists and made them fight. quartering of troops became commonplace!
George III
*mad king George
*young and immature
*ill with porphyria which caused bouts of madness
*appointed George Greenville
Proclamation of 1763
*forbid settlers to advance beyond Appalachian Mountains
*England would control westward expansion
*would slow colonists from leaving the areas most profitable in England
*Helped relations with Indians which had been expensive to defend against
George Greenville
*no sympathy for colonists
*Proclamation of 1763
*Permanent British troops would be stationed in colonies
*customs service enlarged
*colonial man. would be checked
*new set of taxation acts
Stamp Act
*tax on all printed documents
*revenue raising
*colonies were now producing more than 10x revenue
*direct tax to raise revenue, without representation
Sugar Act
*eliminate illegal sugar trade
*raised duty on sugar, lowered in on molasses
*est. smuggling courts depriving them of trial by turial by jury
Quartering Act
required colonists to provide quarters and supplies to British troops
*mass and NY refused to comply
Sons of Liberty
terrorized stamp agents and burned stamps
Stmapact Congress
*met in NY
*9 colonies represented
*said they owed subordination to England
*But England couldn't tax them accept through Colonial assmeblies
*Result: England repealed Stamp act
Townshend Acts
*Declared the acts of NY invalid
*reorganized the customs service
*started seizing ships
*sent troops to enforce the Acts
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770- Liberty Boys tormenting soldiers. British lined up and fired into crowd, killing 5
Tea Act
British East India company monopolizes all tea imports
Coercive (intolerable acts) acts (quartering act, boston port bill, administration of justice act, mass govnt act, quebec act
closed Boston Harbor, annuled mass colonial charters, british officers sent home for trials, quaartering of trrops, centralized govnt for Canada
Boston Tea Party
*rebellion had been growing
*colonies seized Gaspee and sunk it. British sent those accused to England for trial
*Eat India Tea Company was able to undersell colonial tea merchants due to the Tea Act of 1773
*Taverns became the place where info was exchanged
*dressed as Mohawk Indians and went aboard ships and dumped tea chests into harbor
Sam Adams
*leads resistence in 1764, enters politics full time.
*mass legislature
*led effort to est committee of correspondance that published Declaration of Colonial Rights, which he wrote
First Continental Congress
*planned through committees of correspondance
*drafted Articles of Association.
*boycott Britsh goods
Second Continental Congress
*british had declared war on colonies
*continental army was created
*Geroge washington appointed commander in chief
*olive branch petition
Common Sense
*written by Thomas Paine
*changed attitude of common people about independance
*George II was a brutal tyrant
*English were not fit to rule colonies
*100,000 sold, HUGE
Paul Revere
alerted minutemen when British men were coming .
*one lantern vx two lantern system
Battle of Saratoga
Key turning point of war for America, English surrendered
*aid from France
*recognized as free country
Treaty of Paris
*ends Revolution
*recognition as independant nation, USA
*Britain agrees to remove all troops
*America pay all remaining debts
*not persecute Loyalists
Land Ordinance of 1785
*provided the the Old Northwest be surveyed, then soled for payments of debts
Benefits:simple, easy to administor, fair, few land desputes, castial system
Newburgh Conspiracy
*talk of defying govnt, turn on them/overthrow
*GW steps in and talks them out of it bc of how distraught he was, puts glasses on
Annapolis Convention
*12 reps of 5 states met to discuss amending AOC
*Hamilton, Randolph, Madison present
*Hamilton and Madison recommend a national meeting to consider the adequacy of AOC
3/5ths compromise
five slaves= three free white men
judiciary act of 1789
*implemented judiciary clause
*set up a system of federal courts
Citizen Genet
*comes to America and starts in SOuth trying to recruit ship builders and investors
*Hints at Jeffersons support
*GW refuses to meet with him
Adams
*jefferson VP, intimate enemies
*political parties emerge
John Marshall
*most significant supreme justice
*elected by Jefferson
Marbury vs. Madison
*judicial review of a fereral law
*Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional
McCullough vs. Maryland
*fed vs state
*necessary and proper: power to pursue interstate commerce
*US Bank constitutional
*can a state tax the bank: NO
Gibbons vs Ogden
US vs NY
*supremacy clause
*congress regulare comerce: yes
interstate commerce
War of 1812
*direct result of Battle of Tippecanoe
*expansion into canada and south
fought for natl pride, to grow up
*ended feelings of colonial dependancy
*ended hopes of Indian unity
War Hawks
*raised young generation of political leaders
*resented british influence
*Henry Clay and John Calhoun
*wanted Spanish Florida/ Canada
*pro-slavery
*federalist voted against war
*struggle gained little
Treaty of Ghent
*Britsh decided to end minor war in US.
*British agreed to evacuate western posts
Hartford Convention
*New England federalists wanted to talk of secession
*Nullification doctrie signed instead
*end of federalists
Virgina Dynasty
Jefferson, Madison, Monroe (monroe is last of dynasty)
Era of Good Feelings
*no political parties bc everyone pretty much believe the same ideals
*spirit of nationalism
*Monroe term
Monroe
*Seved in Rev War
*named Calhoun as secretary of War and JQA as secrretary of State
Treaties of JQA
*sect of state
*Rush Bagot Treaty
*Adams-Onis treaty
sectionalism
north vs south
north: abolition, manufacturing, nationalism
outh: slavery, farming, states rights
Monroe Doctrine
American continents are not to be colonized by Europe and if you do we consider it an unfriendly act, we wont get involved with European affaors
election of 1824 and the Corrupt Bargain
Election: Henry Clay: William Crawford
Corrupt Bargain: Jackson and JQA
**Jackson wins plurality...vote thrown to House of Reps
*Clay thrown support to JQA and he becomes pres, Clay becomes S of state
Tariff of Abominations
JQA
*tariff placed on all imported goods. Hurt south and didnt help North. JQA took heat, cause significant division
*political parties emerge again
election of 1828
Natl Republicans: JQA vs Democratic Republicans: Jackson
**Jackson won
**dirty election
Calhoun
*Calhoun was Jacksons VP
*promising future
*intended to be next pres
*South Carolina
*voted for Clay's American System
Kitchen Cabinet
a group of unofficial advisors with whom president Jackson regularly consulted, particularly during his first years
Martin Van Buren
Jacksons secretary of state
*Peggy Eaton affair drives a wedge between Calhoun and Jackson
Webster Hayne Debate
*nationalism and union
*states rights and nullifcation
*Hayne defended state sovereignity. Webster replied the union was "one and inseprable" and nullifcation was treasonable
Nullifcation
*Calhoun
*states were final arbiters of constitutionality
*could refuse to abide by a law
FAILS
William Henry Harrison
Indian govenor. battle of tippecanoe. whig, runs with John Tyler against Martin Van Buren
democrats
right of small farmers, south and west supprt, westward expansion, indian removal, dilike for restrictive economic policies
whigs
heir to federalists, strong federal role in economy, american system, strong religious element, old northwest and new england support, opposed jackson
second american party system
the whigs and democrats
the bank war
jackson hates bank, destroys banks, removes all US deposits, secretary of treasury says bad idea, jackson fires him and Taney does it, Taney puts deposits in state "pet banks." if taney does it, gets to be next supreme justice
taney
takes all us deposits out of bank.... gets to be next supreme justice bc he does it
Nicholas Biddle
president of second bank of US. Biddle asks for a new charter, Jackson vetos it and won veto.
1832 election
jackson veto's second charter, becomes issue for election. didn't think jackson would win, but he does
opposition to bank
pet banks were constricting currency, hurt south and west, wanted rapid, bank issued bank notes, only wanted silver and gold, public virtue
Indian removal act
congress allocated money to remove indian trives in the south to the west. Jackson sends federal troops
utopian societies
Robert Owen, George Ripley
temperance
Beecher, Father Theobald Mathew, Neal Dow
abolition
Garrison, Douglass, Tubman, Stowe, Burritt, Phillips
women's rights
Garrison, Staton, Mott,
education
Horace Mann, Dr. Graham